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Numberl 14(2)/2017


Ecoterra, 2017, 14(2):1-9
Importance and procedure of building life cycle assessment
Importanta si procedura pentru evaluarea ciclului de viata al cladirilor

Gergő Érces
Doctoral School of Military Sciences, National University of Public Service, Budapest, Hungary
Ágoston Restás
Institute of Disaster Management, National University of Public Service, Budapest, Hungary

Basic pillars of sustainable development, among others, are safety and health. One major area of the security of buildings is fire protection, which is – in a complex way – an integral part of the life cycle of buildings. In almost every country of the world architectural fire protection is based on laws. We are aware of fire safety estimation methods, technical procedures, risk assessments in the science of fire protection, but they do not comprise the entire life cycle of a building in terms of building – human – fire triple interaction, nor take account of fire prevention, fire intervention, or fire investigation. Authors used building life cycle assessment (LCA) in order to create a sustainable future, to the model of which engineering methods (building diagnostics, simulation, fire test, etc.) can be used to investigate the development of fire safety status of the built environment. Analyzing the activity of all participants involved in the fire protection of buildings in terms of usage throughout the entire life cycle of the building is also possible. In this article authors analyze the implementation of complex fire protection across the full life cycle of buildings. Integrated in investigation of fires, which were generated in critical times, in critical places, and situations, authors introduced the potential development opportunities lying in complex fire protection based on engineering methods, and also in fire safety lifecycle analysis of buildings.

Ecoterra, 2017, 14(2):10-26
Assessing sources and contaminates of soil in public parks and playgrounds of Romanian cities located on the external side of the Carpathian mountain chain
Evaluarea surselor si contaminantilor solului in parcurile si locurile de joaca din unele orase situate in partea exterioara a lantului Muntilor Carpati

Andra Cristina Gagiu
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, 103-105, Muncii Blvd, 400641, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Fulvio Amato, Xavier Querol, Oriol Font
Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDÆA-CSIC), C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
Elena Maria Pica
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, 103-105, Muncii Blvd, 400641, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Camelia Botezan
Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, ISUMADECIP, 30 Fântânele Street, 400294, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

The Romanian cities, especially in the proximity of the Carpathian mountain chain, are acknowledged for the natural resources and for the intense anthropogenic activities related to their exploitation and processing. Nevertheless, the effects of these activities on urban soil quality have not been yet consistently assessed. In this regard the present paper aims at identifying contamination levels, sources of origins and components of urban soil in public parks and playgrounds strongly related to anthropogenic activities in 11 Romanian cities. Twenty five different elements concentrations were determined in order to identify their source in soil and whether or not they can be considered as contaminants. The study has been carried out at 59 urban parks and playgrounds, using analytical procedures, multivariate statistical and mathematical methods. Results highlight concentrations for contaminants such as Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Hg, Pb and Mo that recurrently exceed alert thresholds established for Romania, denoting extensive pollution in public urban recreational areas. In 15% of the locations punctual severe contamination has been identified, mainly by Hg, As, Pb and Cr. Both principal components and factor analyses indicate anthropogenic activities (mainly metallurgy and traffic) as sources for these contaminants. 

Ecoterra, 2017, 14(2):27-34
Mechanical processing of end of life printed circuit boards for recovery of metals
Procesarea mecanica la finalul stadiului de viata al placilor de circuite integrate pentru recuperarea metalelor

Tamás Magyar
Dél-Konstrukt Zrt, Szeged, Hungary
Ágnes Horváth, Imre Gombkötő
University of Miskolc, Miskolc, Hungary

The main objective of the present paper is to investigate the recoverability of precious metals and critical elements from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) - originated from automobile industry - by mechanical methods. Firstly. the PCBs were crushed under 5 mm by rotary shear shredder and cutting mill in order to ensure the liberation of metal parts. After the sample preparation, the products were divided into size fractions by using standard sieves. In the different fractions the precious metals were enriched by eddy current and electrostatic separator. The density analysis showed that the liberation of metal parts is appropriate under the particle size of 2 mm. Therefore the samples were crushed and the enrichment experiments were carried out with this fraction again. Based on the results of electrostatic separator the non-ferrous and precious metals are enriched in the conductive product. While the critical elements left in the non-conductive product.

Ecoterra, 2017, 14(2):35-43
Tools for assessing environmental impacts of technological applications
Instrumente pentru evaluarea impactului de mediu a aplicatiilor tehnologice

Tiberiu Rusu
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Ildiko Tulbure
University „1 Decembrie 1918”, Alba Iulia, Romania; Clausthal University of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany; Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania

The foremost goal of industrial activities is represented by the desire to improve the living standard of humanity. However often happened that beside positive direct and desired effects of technological applications, undesired negative effects on the environment and society have been registered. With regard to sustainability goals the chances and challenges of technological developments have to be carefully analysed and assessed. The pretty new discipline called “Technology Assessment”, started in the United States in the ’70s, becoming pretty well known during the '80s in Western Europe, is offering analytical methods and instruments for carrying out studies in the field of environmental impact assessments. Presently the most discussed one on international level is the life cycle assessment (LCA), but also environmental management systems or ecoaudits. In the present paper general notions regarding these tools will be presented as well as application possibilities will be debated.

Ecoterra, 2017, 14(2):44-51
Tropospheric ozone temporal variations and relationship to atmospheric oxidation in Ciuc basin
Variatiile temporale ale ozonului troposferic si relatia cu oxidarea atmosferica in bazinul Ciuc

Réka Boga
University Sapientia, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania
Attila Korodi
Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania
Ágnes Keresztesi
Babeș-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Gina Ghita, Mihaela Ilie, György Deák
National Institute for Research and Development in Environmenal Protection, Bucharest, Romania

This study summarizes the results of a continuous measurements of gaseous pollutants, NO, NO2, NOx and O3 in the ambient air of Ciuc basin. The main objectives of this report were to characterize the concentration and temporal variations of ozone and its precursors in Ciuc basin; to discuss the relationship between ozone and atmospheric oxidation OX (OX = NO2+O3). The highest concentration and highest amplitude of diurnal variation in OX throughout the four seasons were observed during summer. OX maintained a relatively low concentration during autumn. The concentration of ozone was highest in the spring, interesting is the relative higher concentration in winter. The major component of surface O3 variation, both inter-annual and seasonal, is its annual cycle, which is primarily controlled at macro level by solar insulation and temperature cycle, in-situ production and transport. In this context, the diurnal ozone cycle consists of four phases: overnight carryover of ozone precursors; inhibition of ozone formation during the morning due to titration with NO; accumulation of ozone from the end of the inhibition period to the time ozone reaches its maximum; and post ozone maximum, which is characterized by increased vertical mixing and horizontal advection, declining actinic flux, and titration of ozone by fresh NO2 emissions during the afternoon.

Ecoterra, 2017, 14(2):52-59
Chemical characteristics of wet precipitation in the Eastern Carpathians, Romania
Caracteristicile chimice ale precipitatiilor in estul Carpatilor, Romania

Ágnes Keresztesi
Babeș-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Attila Korodi
Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania
Réka Boga
University Sapientia, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania
Sándor Petres
University Sapientia, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania; University Politehnica of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania
Gina Ghita, Mihaela Ilie
National Institute for Research and Development in Environmenal Protection, Bucharest, Romania

Studies on precipitation chemistry were carried out from January 2006 to November 2016 at Miercurea Ciuc, Ciuc basin, and Joseni, Giurgeu basin, Eastern Carpathians, Romania. A total of 362 and 114 samples were collected at Miercurea Ciuc and Joseni, respectively, and were analyzed for pH, major cations and anions (NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-). HCO3- concentrations were calculated through pH measurements. The rainwater was alkaline, with an arithmetic mean pH value of 6.72 and volume weighted mean (VWM) of 6.49, ranging from 4.47 to 7.85 for Miercurea Ciuc. The arithmetic mean pH value for Joseni is 6.75, while the VWM is 6.72, with pH values ranging from 5.45 to 7.83. The predominant cation in the case of both sampling sites is NH4+. The NH4+ concentration accounted for ~34% and ~37% of the total ions measured, for Miercurea Ciuc and Joseni, respectively. The high NH4+ concentrations are probably due to biomass and stubble burning, peat fires, but also to soil fertilization and cattle waste deposits. According to the calculations of neutralization factors, it can be said that the netralization of acidity is mainly brought by NH4+. The proportions of sea salt and non-sea salt elements were estimated, using Na as an indicator of marine origin.

Ecoterra, 2017, 14(2):60-69
Comparative study of air temperature evolution in the Ciuc depression
Studiu comparativ al evolutiei temperaturii aerului in depresiunea Ciuc

Sándor Petres
University Politehnica of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania; University Sapientia, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania
Réka Boga
University Sapientia, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania
Ágnes Keresztesi
Babeș-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Gina Ghita, Mihaela Ilie, György Deák
National Institute for Research and Development in Environmenal Protection, Bucharest, Romania

The goal of this paper is to present an analysis of evolution in time and trends of air temperature, and the number of days with significant characteristics of the air temperature, in the city of Miercurea-Ciuc (Romania) for the 2006-2015 timeframe. The data were measured at an hourly basis by the Miercurea-Ciuc weather station, situated at an altitude of 661 m, belonging to the National Administration for Meteorology. The results were compared with data presented in relevant studies referring to temperature measurements for the last century. The provided results were summarized, processed and discussed, the main conclusion being that the annual average of air temperature is continuously increasing over the last decade, due to global and local factors, the changes affecting even the four-season type moderate continental climate established in the region.

Ecoterra, 2017, 14(2):70-77
Air pollution analysis in Moldova Noua waste dump
Analiza poluarii aerului la halda de deseuri din Moldova Noua

Simona Natalia Raischi
National Institute for Research and Development in Environmenal Protection, Bucharest, Romania
Robert Szép
University Sapientia, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania
Cristina Mihaela Balaceanu, Marius Raischi, Diana Dumitru, Andreea Moncea, Lucian Laslo, György Deák
National Institute for Research and Development in Environmenal Protection, Bucharest, Romania
Ágnes Keresztesi
Babeș-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Air quality modelling is an essential tool for most air pollution studies. The air quality models are the means whereby pollutant emissions can be related to atmospheric pollutant concentrations. The uncertainties in assessment of air quality are related to both the quality of measured values of pollutant concentrations in local network and the input data for the models. The better estimation of air quality requests to combine the results of measurements with the results obtained by modelling. The aim of this paper is to analyse the level of air pollution caused by Moldova Noua waste dump and identifying of methods to improve the assessment of air quality by comparing the measured and modelled values of PM10 concentrations. Considering the stringent and largely debated issue of trans-border pollution within the Moldova Noua waste dump area which affects both Romania and Serbia, the main pollutants PM10 were monitored in three main sampling points, in different time periods and weather conditions.

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