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Number 15(3)/2018


Ecoterra, 2018, 15(3):1-7
Analysis of natural environmental risks occurring in the Republic of Moldova
Analiza riscurilor naturale de mediu in Republica Moldova

Irina Raboșapca, Andras-Istvan Barta, Eduard Schuster
Babeș-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Geography, Bistrița Academic Extension, 3-5 A. Mureșanu str., 420117 Bistrița, Romania
Adrian Vodiță
Babeș-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Geography, Department of Regional Geography and Territorial Planning, 5-7 Clinicilor str., 400006 Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Nowadays a healthy and stable environment determines the standard of living and the productivity level of the human society. To obtain an objective image and to be able to coordinate their daily activities, people must identify and evaluate the sources of natural environmental risks. The Republic of Moldova is very vulnerable to natural environmental risk, especially climatic ones. The natural environmental risks specific to the Republic of Moldova are characterised by a medium to high frequency and medium to high consequences. A large number of natural risks are affecting the country’s territory, among which the following ones are especially frequent: drought, floods, frost, earthquakes, hail. According to the data provided by the Civil Protection and Emergency Situations Service of the Republic of Moldova, during the 2007-2017 period 915 emergency situations of natural origins took place, causing a total loss of over 209 million EUR. The most vulnerable to these natural phenomena are the agriculture and the industries using agricultural products as raw material, especially the food and drinks industry. For a pertinent evaluation of natural environmental risks and of the quality of the environment, this action has to be interdisciplinary, based on a complex system of investigation methods, procedures, techniques, feasible principles and instruments. The climatic risks amelioration measures often need additional funding for the construction of a proper infrastructure, for the elaboration and implementation of advanced monitoring, prevention and aftereffects diminishing technologies, spatial planning, planting risk conditions-resistant crops, erecting buildings that can withstand natural disasters, positioning at reasonable distances from the risk source, or choosing areas with a crop-favouring microclimate.

Ecoterra, 2018, 15(3):8-19
Effectiveness of squid atractors made from PVC pipe material for squid egg collection
Effectiveness of squid atractors made from PVC pipe material for squid egg collection

Sudrajat Danu
Department of Fishing Tecnology, Jakarta Fisheries University, Jakarta, Indonesia
Mulyono S. Baskoro, Zulkarnain, Roza Yusfiandayani
Department of Fisheries Resources Utilization, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Bogor Agricultural University, Dramaga-Bogor, Indonesia

Squid attractors are used as a place for the squid to lay its eggs which later can be hatched and cultivated to meet the world's demand for cephalophods which currently are exclusively fulfilled from stocks caught in nature. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of squid atractor made by PCV pipe materials, to determine the depth whereas the attractors gave the best results, and to measure the time needed for the eggs to hatch. Two types of squid attractor made by PVC pipe material were used, namely Attractor Type 1 (T1) with cover on the top and both sides of the right and left, and Type 2 (T2) which is given a cover only at the top. Squid attractors were set around a stationary liftnet with a distance of 5 meters. The depth around stationary liftnet are varied with 8 meters depth on the west side, 6-7 meters depth on the north and south side and 5 meters depth on the east side. The results showed that the number of clusters produced was influenced by the type of attractor and the position of setting whereas this positions were reflecting the depth of the water (df = 4, F = 14.74, p < 0.05). The number of squid eggs in 1 cluster was amounted to 484 eggs, so the number of eggs produced in this study was 12,584 eggs. Atractor T1 gave the best results compared to T2 atractors (df = 1, F = 21.56, p < 0.05). Based on the results of squid eggs found on the attractor, the squid effectively lays its eggs at a depth of 6-8 meters. Squid eggs should be moved from attractor before 23rd day for cultivation purpose.

Ecoterra, 2018, 15(3):20-31
Environmental research in a seismic area
Environmental research in a seismic area

Victorin-Emilian Toader, Iren-Adelina Moldovan, Constantin Ionescu, Alexandru Marmureanu, Andrei Mihai
National Institute for Earth Physics, Calugareni 12, Magurele, Romania

A multidisciplinary network is monitoring a seismic area from Romania, Vrancea, sitting at curvature of Carpathian Mountains. The last major earthquake here produced distant effects (Moscow, Istanbul) in 1977 with Mw = 7.4 and there is a high probability of having a similar event soon. Romania has a large seismic network and 10 multidisciplinary stations near to faults that monitoring the precursor factors in correlation with environmental conditions. A high quantity of information is stored and analyzed online and offline. A part of it is shared with EPOS - ORFEUS organization in real time. The tectonic stress generates many effects in lithosphere and atmosphere that affect the environment. Out database includes information about air ionization, radon concentration, CO2, telluric and electromagnetic fields, solar radiation, acoustic effects of explosions or microfracturing of rocks, ULF and VLF radio waves, GPS data, meteorological data, electrostatic field in air, lighting, magnetic and electric field, next to seismic records. The main goal of this monitoring effort is to help the authorities with information about risk situation and effects of climate change. The targets in research are the phenomena between the lithosphere and near surface low atmosphere, the effect of tectonic stress on the ionosphere, and the impacts of climate change. The environmental information like CO2, radon, air ionization or aerosols is valuable if it is obtained in areas where we have manifestations of tectonic stress. To assess the magnetic pollution we installed a magnetometer in the center of Bucharest but the same type of sensor works in a tunnel in Muntele Rosu (an isolated mountain area) for monitoring the geomagnetic field. The correlation of environmental factors with seismicity is a main method for analysis the precursor phenomena. Seismic prediction is not possible but a forecast could be. We have many examples of anomalies before earthquakes including animal behavior. The challenge is to generate useful information before the phenomenon occurs. For seismic event we have a EWS information network connected to authorities in real time. The next step is to introduce environmental events with large effects in our information system.

Ecoterra, 2018, 15(3):32-53
A severe weather event in Dobrogea: September 30th - October 02nd, 2013
A severe weather event in Dobrogea: September 30th - October 02nd, 2013

Angela Crăciun
National Meteorological Administration, Dobrogea Regional Meteorological Centre, Romania

The described event frames within the pattern of cold season storms that occurred at the contact between a cyclone of Mediterranean origin activated in the western basin of the Black Sea and a high-pressure system situated above the Russian Plain. The event was uncommon through not only the intensity of the wind, the precipitation amounts recorded and its magnitude in time but mostly through the time of the year when it occurred, i.e. at the beginning of October. A volume of 30-40 mm of rain fell, which corresponds to the precipitation climate normal in Dobrogea for the whole month of September, whereas the 15-35 mm climate normal for October was exceeded roughly tenfold in the first two days of the month. If in the first and second ten-day intervals of the month the moisture reserve accessible to plants over the 0-20, 0-50 and 0-100 cm depths was at moderate drought and close to optimum supply levels at Adamclisi and Medgidia weather stations, whereas extreme drought was recorded at Tulcea station. The situation turned to moisture excess in the 21st September – 3rd October interval at all of the mentioned weather stations. The unfavourable weather conditions induced by the analysed episode disturbed the social-economic activity; trees were uprooted, basements and households were flooded and entire localities were left without electricity. However, probably the most severe damage, economically speaking, was the complete halting of the harbour activities.

Ecoterra, 2018, 15(3):54-62
Analytical study on electromagnetic smog from Cluj-Napoca city
Analytical study on electromagnetic smog from Cluj-Napoca city

Andreea R. Pogăcian, Viorel Dan, Radu Fechete
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

The modern development of all areas where electricity is used has led to the pollution of the environment and to the bad influence of electromagnetic radiation on any living organism. It is certainly an attack on the health of the population and on the global climate change. Obvious we can't imagine the modern life on Earth without electricity, but mankind needs to be informed by introducing a multidisciplinary research theme that contributes to sustainable (social and economic) development for environmental protection and to understand the consequences that follow by the explosions of energy that shed the Earth. Following the research on electromagnetic fields and waves from the environment we have been focused on the following points: an urban center, a public educational institution and a family home. The objectives of the paper highlight the sources of pollution in Cluj-Napoca city, their impact on the environment and the human body, the measurement and evaluation of risks and design of a monitoring system for electromagnetic pollution. In all locations the electromagnetic flux was found below the threshold limit, with negligible values in open air. Large magnetic fields were measured for microwave oven and hair dryer in the range of 5 Hz to 2 kHz, while the Laptops, open TV, hair dryer, lamp and electrical brushes has a large value in the range of 2 kHz to 100 kHz. In the high frequency range the electromagnetic flux measured near to a wi-fi router and microwave oven exceed the threshold limit of 2.7 mW/m2.

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