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FIRST PAGE ECOTERRA NUMBER 11(4)/2014


Ecoterra, 2014, 11(4):1-10
STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF SEWER PIPES ON THE ENVIRONMENT
STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF SEWER PIPES ON THE ENVIRONMENT

Iulian N. Bădilă, Tiberiu Rusu, Timea Gabor
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering and Sustainable Development Entrepreneurship, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

The present paper has as objective a study on the impact of sewer pipes on the environment. At the beginning of the paper there is a brief study on the causes that produce quality deterioration of sewer pipes. Following, there is a characterization of the existing sewer pipe types. At the end of the paper there will be indicated the effects of direct and indirect rehabilitation of the sewage network and will be proposed strategies to improve their performance.


Ecoterra, 2014, 11(4):11-16
WET DEPOSITION ANALYSIS USING UV-VIS SPECTROMETRY IN MARAMURES COUNTY (ROMANIA)
WET DEPOSITION ANALYSIS USING UV-VIS SPECTROMETRY IN MARAMURES COUNTY (ROMANIA)

Claudia Butean, Cristina Mihali, Zoita M. Berinde
Technical University of Cluj Napoca, North University Center of Baia Mare, Chemistry and Biology Department, Baia Mare, Romania
Angela Michnea, Ana M. Gavra, Mirela Simionescu
Environmental Protection Agency Maramureş, Baia Mare, Romania

The paper Wet Deposition Analysis Using UV-VIS Spectrometry in Maramures County presents the experimental results obtained for wet deposition using Perkin Elmer Lamba 25 UV-VIS spectrometer. Four parameters were analysed: chloride, sulphate, nitrate anions and ammonium cation. The samples were collected from four location of Maramures County (Baia Mare, Sighet, Viseu and Borsa) during May-September 2014. The analysis of these parameters aims to investigate the air quality in Maramures County and in the Romanian-Ukraine transboundary area. The level of the wet deposition expressed in liter/square meter (L/mp) was different in the studied areas. The highest average level of wet deposition was in Borsa (52.03±23.64) followed by Baia Mare (43.95±23.33). The values of the wet deposition pH, considering all the sampling locations, ranged between 4.813 and 7.45. In the rain samples collected in Baia Mare area were found the highest average values of the concentrations of SO42- (1.569±0.693) and NO3- (1.603±0.917) and also of ammonium cation (0.676±0.193) due to industrial influence while in Sighetu Marmatiei was found the highest average value for Cl- (1.187±1.072).


Ecoterra, 2014, 11(4):17-22
ANALYSIS ON HEAT PIPES USED TO RECOVER SECONDARY RESOURCES
ANALYSIS ON HEAT PIPES USED TO RECOVER SECONDARY RESOURCES

Timea Gabor, Viorel Dan, Ancuţa E. Tiuc, Iulian N. Bădilă
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering and Sustainable Development Entrepreneurship, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

The present paper is a study on the opportunities given by the use of heat pipes in recovery processes of secondary energetic resources. There were defined the technical elements that characterize a heat pipe, the experimental stand were the experiments were conducted was presented. At the end of the paper it was presented a process within which such residual heat recovery systems can be implemented.


Ecoterra, 2014, 11(4):23-31
PID CONTROL OF THE REMOVAL OF ORGANIC COMPONENT IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS
PID CONTROL OF THE REMOVAL OF ORGANIC COMPONENT IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

Grigore Vlad
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A., Bistrita, Romania
Ruben Crişan, Gabriel Harja, Ioan Naşcu
Faculty of Automation and Computer Science, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Wastewater treatment represents the sum of various processes that reduce pollutant loading to the imposed limits, so that the discharge of the effluent will not damage the environment. If the design of wastewater treatment plant is focused on the removal of organic components, usually this type of plant has primary and secondary treatment. The secondary wastewater treatment – the biological removal of dissolved solids – is a complex process, which needs advanced control strategies for a good operation. This paper presents a systematic procedure to design robust PID controllers to control removal of organic components acting on the aeration air flow rate. The objective of the controllers is to provide adequate effluent quality parameters. The controllers are designed to compensate process parameters variability, to achieve good output disturbance rejection, and to attain good set point response.


Ecoterra, 2014, 11(4):32-39
STUDY ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION RISKS INDUCED BY THE FORMER CHEMICAL PLANT IN TâRNăVENI, MUREş COUNTY
STUDY ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION RISKS INDUCED BY THE FORMER CHEMICAL PLANT IN TâRNăVENI, MUREş COUNTY

Theodor Lupei, Monica Matei, Lucian Laslo, Ana M. Nicolescu
National Institute for Research and Development in Environmental Protection, Bucharest, Romania

Târnăveni is a town considered the third most polluted place in Romania, mainly due to the ruins of the former Chemical Plant, which was closed in 2007. In the former Chemical Plant located right next to this town were made products for different industries such as tannery substances, insecticides, treatments for trees or paint bases in the engineering industry. Residues resulting from the production of chemical substances were stored in three pits located between the former buildings of the plant and the Târnava Mică River, a few tens of meters away. The former Chemical Plant in Târnăveni occupy nearly 100 hectares of land in the southwestern part of the town of which 30 hectares are chemical waste dumps, whose estimated amount would reach 2.5 million tons. The most detrimental component that is in this chemical waste dumps is represented by hexavalent chromium, prolonged exposure through inhalation of this material causes inflammation of the lungs, nose, skin and has carcinogenic effect. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the risk situations that can be generated by this chemical waste dumps, keeping in mind that is in close proximity to the town of Târnăveni and the water flow of the Târnava Mică River. The threat of pollution in this area is considerable, especially considering that if the overlap with some extreme natural events (heavy rainfall, earthquakes, etc.) situation can get out of control and affect the environment and human population.


Ecoterra, 2014, 11(4):40-48
THE IMPORTANCE OF MINE SUBSIDENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENTS OF MINE CLOSURE. CASE STUDY: BAIA SPRIE EAST MINE, BAIA MARE REGION (ROMANIA)
THE IMPORTANCE OF MINE SUBSIDENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENTS OF MINE CLOSURE. CASE STUDY: BAIA SPRIE EAST MINE, BAIA MARE REGION (ROMANIA)

Zoltán Kruk, Dan Costin
University Babeş-Bolyai from Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Cluj–Napoca, Romania

In the following paper we discuss some aspects regarding the importance of mine subsidence in the mine closure and the environmental impact assessment of non-ferrous metal mines. Usually, for vein ore deposits, an impact assessment is focused on tailing ponds and tailing heaps, while mine subsidence tends to be neglected. This may lead to an incomplete impact evaluation. Using a complex methodology, subsidence zones and the associated risks at the Baia Sprie East mine from Baia Mare mining region (Romania) were determined. Based on the results, it is showed the importance of analyzing mine subsidence when it comes to carrying out a risk assessment in the mine closure process.


Ecoterra, 2014, 11(4):49-63
PERFORMANCES IN ACCESS ROAD CONSTRUCTION
PERFORMANCES IN ACCESS ROAD CONSTRUCTION

Valentin Feodorov
University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Bucharest, Romania

The paper deals with access roads to the wind power farms constructed between the years 2008 and 2013 in Romanian county Dobrogea. These unpaved and foundationless roads are devoted to support temporarily heavy trucks with cranes for the establishment, operation and maintenance wind power mills. The main function of access roads is to take over the concentrated forces transmitted by wheels and reduce them through horizontal forces by so called vault effect. It is explained at the beginning of paper how this force conversion is carried out by gravel layers reinforced with triaxial geogrids. Gravel grains of carefully selected sizes and shapes are uniformly confined in the apertures of triaxial geogrids and act together to distribute on large horizontal areas the radial effects of concentrated forces generated by truck wheels. This brilliant application of the ancient vault effect mechanism radically improved the construction technology of the access roads. Further the paper successively presents a physical demonstrative model of vault effect, the registered mechanism of TriAx stabilization, mathematical modeling of trafficked sub-base, the visualization of radial stiffness ratio, comparison of trafficking performance, selection of the appropriate Tensar TriAx geogrids and geogrid foundation solutions in earthquake-susceptible locations. The paper concludes with some Romanian study cases defined by their technologic and economic performances.


Ecoterra, 2014, 11(4):64-76
INNOVATIVE DESIGN OF RETAINING STRUCTURES
INNOVATIVE DESIGN OF RETAINING STRUCTURES

Cristina Feodorov
Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest, Romania
Ramiro Sofronie
UNESCO Chair, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Bucharest, Romania

The paper deals with the design in safe conditions of retaining structures. Both reinforced concrete and reinforced soil retaining walls are considered. When used in seismic areas their original and permanent eccentricities dramatically increase. In order to apply the Meyerhof assumption regarding the distribution of compressive stresses on the basses of retaining structures, the resultants of all vertical forces should be applied on the third-half of the bases. From that condition at limit state, the expression of the aspect-ratio is determined. Those four cases of analysis are: 1) permanent actions AP, 2) permanent and variable actions AP+AV, 3) permanent and accidental actions AP +AA and 4) permanent, variable and accidental actions AP+AV+AA. The obtained expressions for aspect-ratios are represented graphically as functions of different parameters. They suggestively show how the aspect-ratio is influenced by geometric, geo-technique and dynamic parameters. The shaping of cross-sections can be done now in safety. Further, the stability of cross-sections is checked for the three degrees of freedom in plane: sliding, overturning and settling. The obtained safety factors are depending on the aspect-ratio as a geometric parameter. They are also graphically represented and by acting on some parameters the stability conditions of retaining structures can be improved. 


Ecoterra, 2014, 11(4):77-83
POPULATION PROTECTION TASKS IN THE EVENT OF ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
POPULATION PROTECTION TASKS IN THE EVENT OF ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION

Sándor Nagy, Lajos Kátai-Urbán
National University of Public Service, Institute for Disaster Management, Budapest, Hungary

Nowadays, we are struggling with floods of exceptional size and inland waters year by year, meanwhile summer is unbearable because of the drought and heat. Winters are colder and colder, storms have the power of tornadoes and there are more and more seismic activities in Hungary as well. In connection with industrial activities hazardous substances can be released into the environment. These factors put humans, the flora and fauna and the environment alike to the test, and can even destroy them. It is an important question in which fields there is an interconnection between environment protection and the protection of the population. The authors search for answers to this question in this article.


Ecoterra, 2014, 11(4):84-88
CULTURAL LANDSCAPES
CULTURAL LANDSCAPES

Marta Cosma
Babeş-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Geography, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

This study focuses on the cultural landscape of Lăpus Country and it analyses the redevelopment of the urban spaces. These areas have suffered plenty of changes over the years due to technological advancements and popular demand. In many cases, the result was a large space with no local identity and in some instances the areas ended up abandoned due to the high mortality and low birth rate. Another important element is that the young people do not enjoy living in the rural area; they would rather search for an easier life in other places. The reorganization of the destroyed and polluted areas from Lapus Country is part of a process of urban and rural development whose sole purpose is to create a superior living environment. The present research wants to identify the authentic cultural landscape areas existing in Lapus Country and afterwards enhance their value, making them more attractive. This can be done by fully understanding the characteristics of the urban and rural configuration. The proposals were made based on the existing analysis. More green spaces create a pleasant environment for the inhabitants and for the tourists as well, seeing how Lapus Country is an area with a very large tourist potential. The complete study hopes to become a model worth following, underlining the importance of the cultural landscapes taken into account.


Ecoterra, 2014, 11(4):89-93
ASPECTS OF BIOREMEDIATION OF POLLUTED SOILS WITH HYDROCARBONS
ASPECTS OF BIOREMEDIATION OF POLLUTED SOILS WITH HYDROCARBONS

Lazăr Avram, Monica E. Stoica
Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiesti, Drilling, Extraction and Transport of Hydrocarbons Department, Ploiesti, Romania
Andronela Bărbulescu
SC Conpet SA, Romania
Tudora Cristescu
Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiesti, Drilling, Extraction and Transport of Hydrocarbons Department, Ploiesti, Romania

Bioremediation is a process widely used for the treatment of soils contaminated with oil. This technology is based on the premise that a major part of the crude oil components can be used by the microorganisms existing in nature. The success of oil spill bioremediation depends on the ability to establish and maintain the conditions that favor the growth of oil biodegradation speed in a contaminated environment. This paper presents the results of the experimental research that identifies areas polluted with hydrocarbons, where must be taken remedial measures, and developing a remedial program based on laboratory test results. Were analyzed main indicators of polluted soil, after which settled the quantities of nutrients to be added for biodegradation to occur in good conditions.


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