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FIRST PAGE ECOTERRA NUMBER 12(2)/2015


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(2):1-5
OIL PIPELINE TRANSPORT, ENERGY - ENVIRONMENT RELATION
OIL PIPELINE TRANSPORT, ENERGY - ENVIRONMENT RELATION

Timur Chis
Applied Science and Engineering Faculty, Ovidius University Constanta, Constanta, Romania

The crude-oil import and pipeline-related pumping activities date since 1967, when the ship Marianne III delivered the first “black gold” shipping to Constanta harbor. Due to the petroleum products growth and the development of the petrochemical industry, it has been decided to import and transport crude oil through pipelines. This paper presents the management of the environmental scheme.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(2):6-17
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APUSENI MOUNTAINS SETTLEMENTS DEVELOPMENT BASED ON SYNTHETIC INDICATORS
AN ANALYSIS OF THE APUSENI MOUNTAINS SETTLEMENTS DEVELOPMENT BASED ON SYNTHETIC INDICATORS

Veronica Constantin
The Regional Development Agency Centre, Alba-Iulia, Romania
Camelia-Maria Kantor
Claflin University, Department of Social Sciences, USA
Vasile Surd
Babes-Bolyai University, Centre on Research of Settlements and Urbanism, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Complex in terms of social and economic development, the rural and urban settlements of the Apuseni Mountains have registered different levels of growth based on access to resources and different approaches to planning. The present study identifies the different levels of development of the Apuseni Mountains’ settlements (at a county level) based on the calculation and analysis of selected synthetic indicators (Human Development Index, Local Social Development Index, Community Development Index, and Village Development Index), and compares the results to the national data. Results show that, with the exception of two counties and several villages incorporated in other counties, all counties that comprise important areas of the Apuseni Mountains have a value above the national average for all the calculated indices, suggesting a good level of development of the studied area.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(2):18-23
INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY AND ITS USE IN ASSESSING WATER POLLUTION WITH METALS
INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY AND ITS USE IN ASSESSING WATER POLLUTION WITH METALS

Alexandra Hoaghia, Oana Cadar, Erika Levei, Cecilia Roman, Claudiu Tănăselia
INCDO-INOE 2000, Research Institute for Analytical Instrumentation, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Dumitru Ristoiu
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Babeş-Bolyai University from Cluj Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) represents a routine technique used in various fields such as environmental, chemical, forensic, medicine or material sciences. The ICP-MS is suitable for a wide range of concentration levels (from ppt to ppm) and for various types of samples: water, soil, sediments, geological samples or biological fluids and tissues. High sensitivity, accuracy, fast data acquisition and multi-element features makes ICP-MS one of the most used and trusted analytical method. Five well water samples from Copsa Mica area were analysed with respect to metal content (As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn). Resulting data were used for the calculation of the heavy metal pollution index (HPI) and heavy metal evaluation index (HEI). Results show low metal concentrations and low indices, indicating the good quality of waters in the studied area.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(2):24-35
POLITICS OF GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT: INVOLVEMENT OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND KEY CONCEPTS
POLITICS OF GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT: INVOLVEMENT OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND KEY CONCEPTS

Richard Ingwe

Dynamics in the ecosystem, equilibrium or balance between species of plants and lithosphere and the biosphere) over time and extreme events (e.g. climate change) draw attention to the need for increasing understanding of the foregoing as a means of improving public administration. Despite the numerous changes that the world’s publics have experienced previously and recently e.g. the surpassing of the size of rural dwellers by their urban counterparts since the late 2000s, exploding population, extinction of species of flora and fauna, mass depletion of the populations of mammals, bees, among other ecological-environmental crises, public administration fails to adequately map and respond to such challenges thereby allowing anthropocentric governments and mega-corporations, among other stakeholders to continue to politicize the attendant risks, hazards and disasters enthroned. The objective of this article is to highlight this issue. To inaugurate the subject-matter and subsequent ones, we introduce the environment, basic concepts necessary for discussing challenges associated with it and public administration. Finally, directions as well as key issues focusing on the undertaking of further discourses on the subjects-matter are proposed.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(2):36-43
PREREQUISITES OF A NATECH EVENT AT A PRODUCTION GAS WELL IN ROMANIA
PREREQUISITES OF A NATECH EVENT AT A PRODUCTION GAS WELL IN ROMANIA

Alexandra Kovacs, Nicoleta Bican-Brisan, Cristian Malos, Zoltán Török, Alexandru Ozunu
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Babeş-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

This paper describes the need for NaTech risk approach in the extraction and transport activities involving potentially hazardous substances, such as natural gas. Considering the increasing trend in frquency of extreme natural phenomena, industrial facilities are becoming increasingly vulnerable. This makes the scientists focus on predicting such phenomena and on reducing the vulnerability of elements exposed to risk. There are many such international pursuits supporting the extended evaluation studies of NaTech risks, both during the activities performed on the industrial site but especially before their design. NaTech type events, already occuring in the natural gas extraction industry, are an undeniable argument in favour of repetition probability, especially in areas at risk to occurrence of natural phenomena (especially the instability of the land).


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(2):44-49
PARTICULATE MATTER POLLUTION IN AGHIRES MINING AREA AND THE PROVISION OF AIR PROTECTION MEASURES
PARTICULATE MATTER POLLUTION IN AGHIRES MINING AREA AND THE PROVISION OF AIR PROTECTION MEASURES

Vlad Măcicăsan, Liviu Muntean, Gheorghe Rosian, Nicolae Baciu, Ciprian Bodea, Alexandra Ceornei, Dan-Alin Pralea
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Babeş-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

In Aghires mining area, the air quality underwent negative influences due to the pollution caused by particulate matter (PM). The pollutants are present both in the active and inactive mining fields. These are the direct and indirect result of specific mining activities and operations, such as blasting and excavation, outcropping, processing of mined material, loading and unloading of useful minerals and waste rock, transport and storage of tailings etc. For this study, the air quality assessment was performed by in situ analysis, oriented towards the determination of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations. The results showed values exceeding the maximum allowable concentration stipulated in the legislation, both in terms of PM2.5 and PM10. Because of the serious health problems that can be caused by these compounds, specific measures are required in order to protect the ecosystems and the local community. These measures, as parts of an integrated rehabilitation plan, will be applied both in the active mining fields as well as in the inactive ones, focusing on the stripped land and the waste dumps.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(2):50-55
DETECTION OF A DESERT DUST INTRUSION OVER CLUJ-NAPOCA, ROMANIA USING AN ELASTIC BACKSCATTER LIDAR SYSTEM
DETECTION OF A DESERT DUST INTRUSION OVER CLUJ-NAPOCA, ROMANIA USING AN ELASTIC BACKSCATTER LIDAR SYSTEM

Horațiu I. Ștefănie, Nicolae Ajtai, Camelia Botezan
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Babeş-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Florica Țoancă
National Institute of Research and Development for Optoelectronics, Magurele, Romania
Zoltán Török, Alexandru Ozunu
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Babeş-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

In this paper we present a case study regarding a desert dust intrusion over Cluj-Napoca city, observed using a LIDAR system in synergy with other instruments and models. We identified and analyzed the different dust layers present in the atmosphere at the beginning of April 2014. Besides the LIDAR system used in the identification of the dust layers we also used different models like HYSPLIT and FLEXPART in order to estimate the source of the long-range transported aerosol. We used an optical aerosol point monitor in order to measure the ground level concentration of aerosol particles. Several aerosol layers were detected at 3000 -3500 m and 4000 -4500 m. At ground level we measured the PM10 concentration with maximum values reaching 132 μg/m3.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(2):56-60
AMMONIUM NITRATE EXPLOSIONS. CASE STUDY: THE MIHăILESTI ACCIDENT (2004), ROMANIA
AMMONIUM NITRATE EXPLOSIONS. CASE STUDY: THE MIHăILESTI ACCIDENT (2004), ROMANIA

Zoltán Török, Larisa Alexandra Kovacs, Alexandru Ozunu
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Babeş-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Ammonium nitrate is used both as a fertilizer in agriculture and as an ingredient for industrial explosives (for open pits, mine tunnels etc.). The substance is stable in normal conditions of use, storage and transportation, but in the spite of this stability several accidents occurred in the last century involving large quantities of ammonium nitrate, causing many fatalities and human injuries. This paper analyses in more detail the transportation accident with ammonium nitrate explosion in 2004 at Mihăilesti village, Buzău County, Romania. Based on the official report about the accident conditions and consequences, different scenarios were considered using different TNT equivalency factors and the physical effects of the explosion were determined.


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