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FIRST PAGE ECOTERRA NUMBER 14(4)/2017


Ecoterra, 2017, 14(4):1-9
AIRSPACE ACTIVITIES IN SUPPORT OF ENVIRONMENTAL TASKS
ACTIVITATILE AEROSPATIALE IN SPRIJINUL PROBLEMELOR DE MEDIU

Dumitru-Dorin Prunariu
Romanian Space Agency, Bucharest, Romania
Ildiko Tulbure
University „1 Decembrie 1918”, Alba Iulia, Romania

Airspace activities opened new possibilities by air traffic regarding developments in different human activity fields, especially on the human mobility side. Anyway environmental impacts of air traffic may be local or global, temporary or long-lasting. Manufacturing and operating aircraft demand materials, energy and resources. Disposal of old aircraft generates waste that must be recycled or sent to landfill. Emissions created by burning jet fuel cause air pollution and, over decades, climate change. The International Air Transport Association (IATA) has targeted the stabilisation of net carbon emissions because of aviation industry by 2020, with a long-term goal of 50% reduction by 2050 compared to 2005. This is anyway a difficult challenge because of the fact, that passenger traffic will probably increase in the future and connected to this, fuel consumption will increase as well. As a result, it is stringent that initiatives are starting to reduce emissions from commercial aviation with the goal of shaping sustainable aviation. This means that aerospace engineering must bring efficient solutions to improve its environmental performance by making progress in the design and operation of modern aircraft, by implementing the vision of sustainable aviation, approaching this goal by technology assessment as well as by its tool, the Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA). The SESAR 2020 approach of Single European Sky ATM Research Programme is prioritising research for improving Europe’s Air Traffic Management (ATM), so that steps for reducing environmental pollution will be made by delivering safer and cleaner air travel.  


Ecoterra, 2017, 14(4):10-14
EVALUATING THE EXPERIENCES WITH REAL FIRE LOAD. CASE STUDIES IN HUNGARY
EVALUAREA EXPERIENTELOR CU INCARCATURI REALE DE FOC. STUDII DE CAZ IN UNGARIA

Éva Lublóy, Olivér Czoboly, Viktor Hlavička
Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Construction Materials and Technologies, Budapest, Hungary

The initiation and the development of fire are strongly influenced by the choice of construction materials. In addition their mechanical properties, their behaviour in elevated temperature is also of high importance. Present paper deals with the effects of fire attack on concrete of fire attack in concrete structures in Hungary. Material and structural behaviour is analysed at high temperatures, which, based on practical observations, could reach even 800°C in some cases. The fire cases of an industrial hall (2014), of the Athletic Hall of the University of Physical Education in Budapest (2015) and of two types of slab-interjoists systems (with concrete as well as brick interjoists) are summarized in our paper. By the analysis of these fire attacks important information can be obtained that can be used in subsequent fire safety design.


Ecoterra, 2017, 14(4):15-22
INDUSTRIAL SAFETY IN EXPLOSIVE WORK ENVIRONMENT VIEW FOR HUNGARY
SIGURANTA IN MEDIILE INDUSTRIALE CU POTENTIAL EXPLOZIV, SITUATIA IN UNGARIA

Lajos Kiraly
National University of Public Service, Doctoral School of Military Science, Budapest, Hungary
Agoston Restas
Institute of Disaster Management, National University of Public Service, Budapest, Hungary

To work safely in the chemical industry, it is necessary to ensure an appropriate work environment (including a fire protection system) that complies with the requirements for the used hazardous substances and also, to make the internal regulations and work instructions ready. This is especially applicable in case of operations performed with explosive materials - creating a safe work environment with potentially explosive substances. To determine a potentially explosive work environment, there is a calculation method fixed in the standards, which is partly passed on the objective judgment of the expert, a professional. Once the potentially explosive work environment is determined, the requirements for used equipment, machines and the conditions of working - depending on the zone classification - are clearly defined in standards and legal regulations. It also shows the importance of the topic, that the cost of work (including the cost of certified machines and equipment) in a potentially explosive work environment is multiple if we compare it with working in normal and standard work conditions.


Ecoterra, 2017, 14(4):23-30
THE BIODIVERSITY OF BISTRIțA CITY (BISTRIțA-NăSăUD COUNTY, ROMANIA): ITS EVALUATION IN THE PAST AND RECENT STUDIES
BIODIVERSITATEA ORASULUI, BISTRITA (JUDETUL BISTRITA-NASAUD, ROMANIA): EVALUAREA SA IN STUDII DIN TRECUT SI DIN PREZENT

Claudiu Gavriloaie
S.C. Bioflux SRL, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Laszlo Berkesy
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, University Babeş-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Corina Berkesy
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A., Bistriţa, Romania

The biodiversity is the variety of all living things on Earth, along with all their interactions, the genetic information they contain and the ecosystems they form. Biodiversity is important to people in many ways, different species of plants, animals, fungi and micro-organisms providing us with food, medicines, fuel, building materials, fibre for clothing and industrial products. Scientists have identified about 1.75 million different species, which includes 950,000 species of insects, 270,000 species of plants, 19,000 species of fish, 9,000 species of birds, and 4,000 species of mammals. The Romanian biodiversity is high: 3795 higher plant species, 965 moss species, 8727 fungi species, over 600 algae species. As for the fauna, there have been identified 33,085 invertebrate species and 611 vertebrate species. There have been only few studies related with some aspects of the Bistrița-Năsăud county’s biodiversity. Many of the papers had only general remarks, naming only few well known species. Regarding the biodiversity of the Bistrița city itself, there is one paper dealing with two protected areas within the city, where are mentioned mostly plant species inhabiting those areas, and only brief remarks about the fauna. The most recent and comprehensive attempt to assess the biodiversity of the Bistrița city has been done by an NGO, namely Asociația Harta Verde România, which projected and printed a brochure in 2011. It contains a brief presentation of the types of habitats inside and around the city, and a general presentation of the plant and animal species inhabiting the city and its surroundings. The corresponding website contains much more information, and it is updated periodically. Basically, this initiative is the single one focusing on the city biodiversity. The background is intended to be as scientific as possible, many local scientists contributing to it. But there is still no detailed scientific paper, published in an academic journal, regarding the biodiversity of the city. We really hope this will be accomplished in the near future.


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