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Ecoterra, No. 4, p. 9, 2005

Benoni LIXANDRU, Smaranda MÂŞU, Gabriel TRANDAFIR
Facultatea de Zootehnie şi Biotehnologii Timişoara
Andrei KISS
Muzeul Banatului, Timişoara

Abstract: During 2002-2004, a research team made by biologists, ecologists and chemists from the Timişoara Faculty of Zootechny and Biotechnologies, from the Bucharest ECOIND National Institute of Research-Development for Industrial Ecology - the Timişoara branch, and from the Natural Sciences Department of Banat Museum, performed a complex monitoring of the eutrophisation processes in the wet areas of the Ier Valley, mostly of the Ornithological Reservation of Satchinez, Timiş county. While observing the methodology of investigating the eutrophisation of the surface waters, which had been designed by the Bucharest ICIM and in accordance with the SR ISO 5667-1-4: 2000 methodological norms, the monitoring of the wet areas in the Ier Valley was completed in 2004 by physically, chemically and biologically analysing 11 water samples taken in two stages, namely in July and September. This column discusses the oxygenation regime, the degree of aerobic mineralization and also some physical-chemical indicators of the eutrophisation.
Key words: Ier Valley, trophic structure, ornithofauna, surface waters

Ecoterra, No. 4, pp. 16-17, 2005

Şerban-Nicolae VLAD
Universitatea Ecologică Bucureşti

Abstract: The study of the Environmental Science lies on man’s interaction with the physical/geological, atmospheric, biological environment. Man is affected by his coexistence with the natural bio-geological systems and, in his turn, he influences the surrounding world. This dichotomy is obvious when we face nature’s negative impact on society or, the other way round, when we see society’s negative impact upon nature. We will try to subsequently approach the first segment, meaning the one that treats the natural phenomena with disastrous effects, which are some complex processes with a bimodal character, because they affect society, however expanding themselves over nature itself with a boomerang effect. We talk about the natural risk factors. The phenomena of this kind – generated by the Earth – are caused by some endogenous forces, for instance by volcanism or the earthquakes, and by some exogenous forces, such as land sliding and floods. We will long still have in our memory the catastrophic results of the recent earthquake dated December 26th, 2004 in South-East Asia, which caused the death of as many as 175,000 people, left 1.5 million victims, caused huge material damages and gave rise to a hotbed of contagious diseases at the regional scale. But now we selected a peculiar type belonging to the family of the natural risk factors. Those respective phenomena are generated in the cosmic space and could lead, in some exceptional cases, to the collision between some cosmic bodies and the Earth. We thus face what is called a meteoritic impact. The cosmic bodies – such asteroids, planetoids, comets – sometimes modify their trajectory in the extraterrestrial space and arrive in the sphere of the Earth’s gravitational field. When they penetrate the space corresponding to the Earth, they are called meteors and if they reach its surface, they acquire the ‘meteorites’ name.
Key words: environment, natural risk factors, meteoritic impact

Ecoterra, No. 4, pp. 20-21, 2005

Dan ROBESCU, Cătălina Raluca MOCANU
Universitatea Politehnică din Bucureşti
Grigore VLAD
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.

Abstract:  The restoration of lakes it imposed by the actual situation characterized by accentuate aquatic medium eutrophication and also from the artificial pollution with all her negative implications of this processes. This paper study the restoration of water lakes possibilities by applying the process of artificial oxygenation which will conduce at the degradation of anaerobium organically materials and to the diminutions of the negative effects of pollution and eutrophication.
Key words: lake restoration, aquatic eutrophication, pollution, artificial oxygenation

Ecoterra, No. 4, pp. 22-23, 2005

S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.

Abstract: The ozone and some other oxidizers that are to be found in the environmental air, such as the peroxi-acetyl-nitrate and the oxygen peroxide, are formed as a result of some physical and chemical processes involving two categories of forerunning polluting agents, that is to say the organic volatile components and the nitrogen oxides. The formation of the ozone and of other oxidizers from these forerunners is a complex, not linear process, which depends on several factors, including the spectral density of the solar radiation and the meteorological conditions that favour the mixture of the forerunners. Even though the ozone has got countless utilizations for the benefit of man and of the environment, its manifestation as a gaseous polluting agent is nevertheless specifically aggressive to man’s health.
Key words: ozone, pollutant, health, impact

Ecoterra, No. 4, pp. 24-25, 2005

Sevastiţa VRACIU
ICIM Bucureşti
Aurelia MEGHEA
Universitatea Politehnică din Bucureşti

Abstract: The uncontrolled discharge in the hydrographical network of the wastewater with a high contents of metallic ions resulted from the closed mines induces severe alteration of the taking over waters, which have as final effect the ecosystems’ disbalance following the disturbance of the trophic chain processes involving the mineralization inhibition, high concentrations of  metal accumulation in some aquatic organisms and the toxic effects of this metals on the aquatic species and lastly on the human beings. At national level it should be pointed out that the Mures river transports heavy metals resulted from non-point or point sources, the bigger weight as concerning the heavy metals being due to the non-point pollution sources. In this work there are presented the results of the tests performed at pilot scale on a certain installation with aerobic fixed film, supplied with mine water resulted from the Muncelu mine, enriched or not with organic substratum.
Key words: waste water, heavy metals, pollution, alveolar bio-disks

Ecoterra, No. 4, p. 26, 2005

Mircea CRĂCIUN, Andrea-Melinda SZÖCS, Grigore VLAD
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.

Abstract: Out of all bacteria that exist in the conventional treatment installations, only 5-10 % contribute to the purging cleaning and the remaining 90-95 % but consume oxygen and nutrients. This state of facts has called for the need of drawing up some technologies that should lead to the enhancement of the percentage of bacterial populations that are detrimental to the others and that should thus boost the efficiency of the cleaning process. The selected microorganisms (such as the BIOSYSTEMS B250, BIOPLUS2900, WACC, IRS, WWAC), used in advanced cleaning technologies, use all the organic substances, that they oxidize until the CO2 and the water (biodegradation). These bacterial cultures belong to Category 1, they exist in nature and are not pathogenic, according to the definition given by the American Type Culture Collection and the framing given by the Romanian Ministry of Waters and Environmental Protection.   The introduction of the guided bacterial cultures in the purification aerobic stage (i.e. fastened on the immersed biological filters) enhances the yield of the plant, reaching a purification that tends to 98-99 % and, provided that the treatment plant is compact, its capacity boosts by more than 50 %. The installation presented in this column gives rise to aerobic or anaerobic environmental conditions for activating various species of microorganisms and the processes are conducted in the sense of favouring their multiplication. The time needed for the development of these populations of microorganisms is substantially reduced by mixing. The main advantages resulted from the application of this technology are talked about as well.
Key words: bacterial cultures, treatment plant, efficiency

Ecoterra, No. 4, pp. 32-33, 2005

Dumitru VÂJU, Ilie NEGRUŞA, Liviu SUCIU
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.

Abstract: The work describes a pilot installation for the ecological disinfection of water by using the ultraviolet light, the water coming from a deep well and being used in the process of treating food. A lamp with low pressure mercury vapours with the 40 W electrical power, which was immersed in a feeding stainless steel body, through which the water subjected to the treating process circulates, the lamp being fed by a mini-inverter with the 35 KHz frequency, was used for disinfecting the necessary flow rate of 1.8 cubic metres of water/hour.
Key words: ultraviolet light, water disinfection, mercury lamp

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