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FIRST PAGE ECOTERRA NUMBER 3(8)/2006


Ecoterra, No. 8, pp. 6-7, 2006

Ruxandra Mălina PETRESCU
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa Mediului

Abstract: Within the first part of the article, there are discussed the steps taken towards the knowledge of European Union legislation regarding the environment in several Romanian books and treaties. Within the second part there is presented a book based on a Romanian-Belgian cooperation, and finally is presented a national conference regarding the impact of the Communitarian Acquis in the field of technologies and equiments for environment protection.
Key words: legislation, environment protection, books and treaties


Ecoterra, No. 8, pp. 8-9, 2006

Iovanca HAIDUC, Carmen ROBA, Iulia VARGA
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa Mediului

Abstract: One of the first indications that humans have altered the composition of the global atmosphere comes from the measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide that concluded an increase from 320 to 350 ppm between 1973-1989, and to 380 ppm today. The study by EPICA (European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica, between 1996 and 2006) established that over last 500.000 years the Earth’s climate has been unstable, with very significant temperature changes, going from a warm climate to an ice age in as rapidly as a few decade. Ice coring drilling in Antarctica was completed in December 2004, reaching a drilling depth of 3270,2 m; 5 m above bedrock (corresponding to the last 900.000 years) and the results about the nature climate variability and CO2 concentration will be published soon.There are strong correlation between CO2 concentration in the atmosphere and temperature. All of the recent CO2 increase in the atmosphere is due to human activities like fossil fuel burning, deforestation and cement industries.
Key words: global warming, CO2, temperature changing, human activities


Ecoterra, No. 8, pp. 12-13, 2006

Leonora BARBU
Grupul Şcolar de Chimie Industrială “Terapia”, Cluj-Napoca

Abstract: The article approaches a problem of actuality, having in view the degradation of the natural landscape, the hills of real waste products, which at the worldwide level, but also in our country, started to be ecologically reconstructed through revegetation. At this very difficult action, taking into account the unfavourable environment, brought their contribution the scientist from Cluj-Napoca too, in the field of biology, ecology and that of the environment protection. The obtained results constituted a progress in the education of young generation, through conveying the useful information, but even through the implication in applicable projects.
Key words: wastes hills, ecological reconstruction, environment, public education


Ecoterra, No. 8, pp. 16-17, 2006

Vasile BOZINTAN
Direcţia Silvică Bistriţa-Năsăud

Abstract: The importance and usefulness of forests are influenced, first of all, by the vegetation condition of the tree sector, under the aspect of their capacity to produce wooden biomass as well as under the aspect of securing the protection of natural environment against pollution, flood, soil degradation though erosion, landslides, landslip, etc. The demands of the society reported to the multiple qualities and functions of forests are often contradictory, even in conflict. Thus, in order to satisfy the need of wooden mass it is necessary to cut the trees, while in order to secure the exercise of the protection function of the natural environment, the forest must be maintained “standing” in vegetation condition, alive and vigorous. This conflict situation must be solved through technical, technological and juridical regulations, applied in a responsible manner.
Key words: forest, degradation, environment protection, management


Ecoterra, No. 8, pp. 20-22, 2006

Endre DOMOKOS
Universitatea Veszpremi, Ungaria
Enikő FAZAKAS
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, extensia Sf. Gheorghe
Balázs HOLENDA
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.

Abstract: In this study, the reconstruction plan of a wastewater treatment plant based on computer simulation techniques is introduced. According to the simulation results, the planned reconstruction will result in process improvement only above 15°C while biological phosphorus removal cannot be realized due to the significant removal of organics in the primary clarifier. The second half of the paper proposes an alternative reconstruction plan which can fulfil the ammonium-nitrogen limit under 15°C as well, however, the nitrate-nitrogen concentration may increase over the limit in this case too. For the proper operation of the wastewater treatment plant in wintertime, the construction of a new basin and/or the reduction of organic removal in the primary clarifier are indispensable.
Key words: wastewater treatment plant, computer simulation, inhabitant unit


Ecoterra, No. 8, pp. 23-25, 2006

Cătălina Raluca MOCANU
Universitatea Politehnică din Bucureşti

Abstract: Numerous polyphase processes are utilized in wastewater treatment for gas transfer in water. The general equations for masse conservation are used for designing the biphasic reactors, troubleshooting appearing at the masse transfer and mixing processes. That made the correlation with reality very difficult. The real reactors are between the complete mix flow reactor and plug flow because the fluids have a preferential road into the reactor, or he isn’t in totality renewed in some part of reactor, or he his recirculated. So it is necessary to define some notions for the residence time distribution.
Keywords: residence time, model, complet mix flow, plug flow.


Ecoterra, No. 8, pp. 26-27, 2006

Dan ROBESCU, Nicolea JIVAN
Universitatea Politehnică din Bucureşti

Abstract: An experimental research has been performed on the water feeding system of the geographic area Brădişor-Râmnicu Vâlcea-Drăgăşani. The main goal of this research was to state the hydraulic parametres of the transport and distribution system. In this area system for the transport and distribution of water, rehabilitation works were performed in order to secure the transportation capacity for raw water and drinking water after the treatment plant. It was found that, by comparing the values, after cleaning the transport pipe, the flow increased with up to 20 % and the loss of pressure has decreased with 10-15 %.
Key words: drinking water, waste water, treatment plant, transport and distribution system


Ecoterra, No. 8, pp. 28-29, 2006

Mihaela HETVARY, Claudia CICEU
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.
M. BUNEA
S.C. ICPE S.A. Bucureşti

Abstract: The lead-acid battery alaways has been the most rechargeable electrochemical storage system, maintaining its prime position unchallenged now for more than a century. Conventional lead-acid batteries are relatively heavy and thus have a low specific energy. Therefore, to improve the energy density, a lighter grid has been proposed. Also, it has been recognized that the design of the current collector structure, by its influence on the α and γ factors characterizing the battery plates, has an important role with regard to active mass utilization and cycle life. Using foam covered with a thin layer of metal, it was possible to prepare high surface area  metalic electrodes with the minimum consumption of heavy and expensive metals. It has been found that RVC modified with different metals like Pt, Rh, Pd, Ni and Pb with their oxides can be used as matrix for an active mass and current collector in many “classical” primary and secondary batteries. The material Pb/RVC has been used as a carrier and current collector of both positive and negative electrode. The capacity of this battery is more higher in comparation with “classical” lead–acid battery.
Keywords: lead–acid battery, grid, RVC, plate


Ecoterra, No. 8, pp. 30-32, 2006

Corina BERKESY, Dorel CLEJA, Adrian BĂLAN
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.

Abstract: Turning the wastes into useful resources, recycling offers a way to control the solid waste materials reducing pollution, preserving energy, creating jobs and developing the manufacturing industry. Having the society interested in recycling means to assess the benefits and the economic and environmental costs of recycling comparing with the consume of raw materials and the storing of waste materials in special places or their burning in crematory. Considering all these factors the benefits of recycling are relevant.
Key words: pollution, natural resources, recycling, wastes


Ecoterra, No. 8, pp. 33-34, 2006

Gheorghe VĂSARU, Constantin COSMA
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa Mediului

Abstract: The global warming directly connected to the green house effect,is now the most important factor responsible for the climatic changes. These climatic changes in the last years are evidently in all the word and they are attributed to green house gases increasing in the atmosphere, especially in the last 50 years (CO2, CH4, NO2, O3 and CFC). The increase of main greenhouse gas - CO2 - is evidently in tha last 150 years from 275 ppmv +/- 10 ppmv to 353 ppmv in 1994 and some aspects of its presence and measurement are presented. This paper also briefly presents the contribution of these greenhouse gases in atmospheric balance and discuss the possible consequences and the predictable strategies in the future.
Key words: global warming, climatic changes, greenhouse gases, CO2


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