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Ecoterra, No. 13, pp. 3-5, 2007

Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa Mediului

Abstract: Ozone can be found in both the troposphere and the stratosphere. Ozone formed in the troposphere is known as ground-level ozone (or bad ozone). It is an ingredient in smog and it is also a damaging pollutant. It is unusual that a substance which is totally undesirable as a constituent of the air we breath should be so important high up in the atmosphere (in the stratosphere). Without ozone, there would be no life on Earth. Ozone protects us by forming a shield against harmfull radiation from the Sun, known as ultraviolet (UV) radiation (this is the good ozone). Although we cannot see UV radiation, it does have an effect on our bodies. Without the stratospheric ozone layer to stop it, an ever-rising intensity of ultraviolet radiation penetrates to the planet’s surface by 2050, double current levels in the north and quadruple in the south. Skin cancers, eye damage and immune system suppression are rife in those who expose their bodies to the Sun. Walking in the open air cannot be risked without sunscreen and sunglasses; sunbathing is banned.
Key words: ozone, atmosphere, UV radiation, human health, pollutant

Ecoterra, No. 13, pp. 6-8, 2007

Iustinian PETRESCU
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa Mediului

Abstract: The arguments from the Bible and also those given by archeologists and geologists sustain the hipoteze of a big ancient flood. A recent idea is that a great flood took place in the Black Sea area and this is the topic we discuss in this article.
Key words: flood, Black Sea, catastrophy, geology

Ecoterra, No. 13, pp. 9-11, 2007

Gheorghe STAN
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa Mediului

Abstract: Since we suppose we are not the only beeings in Universe gifted with what we are using to call a rational wisdom, but for sure on Planet Earth we are do believing that „we are the best”. Our superior brain capacity throw us on the top of the evolutive pyramid, but we have to proove that we are deserving this top place. We are permanently learning that on our planet we are not alone and we do need all the other living levels in order to secure a balanced existence with the environment, with wildlife. Coexistence of the species is the rule and the exclusivistic competition is the exception in all opened systems. The complexity of the relations among living and between living and environment conducted towards the development of a subtile chemical warfare essential for the intra- and interspecific behaviour the semiochemicala new and challenging object of eco-ethological studies (starting from monitoring and management to pest control, biotechnologies,, and ecotechnologies) prooved to be an incredible finding. Therefore these substances are possesing an essential role for the environment protection. The experience achieved around the academic environment from Cluj-Napoca’s biological and chemical sciences opened the road in this field and in the following three parts of this essay we will try to un revell the most amazing milestones.
Key words: behaviour, ecosystem, species, environment protection

Ecoterra, No. 13, pp. 14-15, 2007

Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa Mediului
Asociaţia Naţională a Salvatorilor Montani din România, Salvamont Lupeni

Abstract: The avalanches are gravitanional flows of snow. They occur, usually, in the first half winter season or they repeat themselves with a great fluctuation in the areas with balconies, where a big quantity of snow can not be maintained. The avalanches can appear, too, in the second of the season, when on the ground are more old snow layers. In these snow layers the cohesion between the snowcrystals could be weakened thanks to the climate warming. The warming is suddenly followed by a temperature diminuation and then by abundant snowfalls which lead to the bottom avalanches, which were named “tsunami in mountains”.
Key words: avalanche, winter season, snow layers, climate

Ecoterra, No. 13, p. 16, 2007

Agenţia pentru Protecţia Mediului, Maramureş

Abstract: Creasta Cocoşului reserve is build of stratified limestone that was uncontrolled exploited during the time and used for the local lime production in kilns. The physic-chemical indicators that were analized highlight some characteristics of the soil and water quality within the reserve. The soil samples are alkaline, as a result of its composition based on limestone, may be also of its pollution due to the very fine suspended lime dust from the kilns. The quality of water is quite good, from a chemical point of view, but the exceeding of the limit value for hardness and sulphate was noticed.
Key words: water quality, soil quality, natural reserve, geology

Ecoterra, No. 13, pp. 20-22, 2007

Dionisie BUBURUZ, Dumitru ROŞCOVAN
Institutul de Ecologie şi Geografie al Academiei de Ştiinţe a Moldovei, Chişinău
Universitatea de Stat din Republica Moldova, Chişinău

Abstract: Within the Middle Prut River basin there is one of the oldest meadow forests in Europe: “Royal Forest”. In order to preserve the most representative natural meadow and marsh sylvan complex from the Republic of Moldova, “Royal Forest” was declared Natural Reserve since 1993.
Key words: nature reserve, Prut river basin, Royal Forest

Ecoterra, No. 13, p. 23, 2007

Universitatea Politehnică din Bucureşti

Abstract: Oxygenation of water is a pyhisical process to assign oxygen from air in water, with big energy consumption. For control of this process necessary to study the mechanism of assignment, and the factors which induce evolution of oxygen concentration in oxygen weight. In this work are present harvests pattern making and sham of assignation process with diffusion-spread equation. The harvest obtained through numerical integration of spread equation are comparable with those measured through experiments.
Key words: oxygen transpher, duffusion, equation

Ecoterra, No. 13, p. 24, 2007

Diana Voicu
Institutul de Biologie al Academiei Române, Bucureşti

Abstract: Lichens are amazing symbiotic systems that express peculiar characteristics of biotechnological and medicinal interest, by their secondary metabolites. We illustrate in this paper some remarkable species. Using like starting material lichens thalli, it had been prepared a series of medicines, some of exceptional importance for human health.
Key words: lichens, human health, biotechnology, environment

Ecoterra, No. 13, p. 25, 2007

Ioana Onuţ
Institutul de Biologie al Academiei Române, Bucureşti

Abstract: Hepatica transsilvanica is an endemic species included in Order Ranunculales, Family Ranunculaceae. It can be found as a spontaneous plant only in Transylvania region (Romania). Due to its beauty, many countries have adopted it and now it is used as an ornamental plant in the gardens of the entire world. But apart from its marvelous habitus, Brave heart’s cross also raised  the interest of scientists, because aspects like phylogeny or the story which lays behind its common name are important questions to answer.
Key words: Hepatica transsilvanica, endemic species, occurrence

Ecoterra, No. 13, pp. 26-27, 2007

S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.

Abstract: In principle plants can be propagated in two ways: vegetative (asexual, also called cloning) and generative (sexually, by seeds). Both types of propagation may be impossible under certain conditions. When generative propagation is unsatisfactory no seeds are formed, too few seeds are formed, the seeds quickly loose their germination viability) the vegetative propagation is often adopted. Generative propagation is equally unsatisfactory when a (very) heterogeneous progeny is obtained, due to its strong heterozygosity.        Vegetative propagation is also very important in plant breeding: parent lines have to be maintained and propagated vegetatively for seed production; cloning is often required for setting up gene banks; adventitious shoot formation is needed to obtain solid mutants after mutation induction. To propagate plants in vitro by adventitious organ or embryo formation, in principle, it is necessary that they are capable of regeneration. The ability to regenerate is determined by genotype, the environmental conditions (nutrient supply, regulators and physical conditions), and the developmental stage of the plant .The developmental stage of the starting material is the next most important factor: juvenile plants have a greater regeneration capacity than adult plants. Since adult plants are generally used for vegetative propagation, this means that especially in the case of woody species, an attempt should be made to rejuvenate them before use. Rejuvenation can sometimes be achieved by: meristem culture; the cutting from a cutting method (also used in vivo). Rejuvenation by means of meristem culture, despite the difficulties associated with this method, is still the most favoured technique since it: maintains genetic stability, eliminated fungi and bacteria, and can sometimes result in the additional advantage of obtaining virus-free material.
Key words: Arbutus unedo,  plant propagation, genotype

Ecoterra, No. 13, pp. 28-29, 2007

S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.

Abstract: Poland was create a finacial institution unique, to resolve environment protection and sustainable development problems. This model proves that in present economic conditions, a system like that is unable to sustain all-alone institutional frame for sustainable development. When every country will give example for water, aer, mineral, flora, fauna costs, then every nation  will point to sustainable development.
Key words: Poland, environment protection, financial institution, sustainable development

Ecoterra, No. 13, pp. 30-31, 2007

S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.

Abstract: In this paper we discuss about the alien species: what are they, when and how became possible for so many species to extend their natural range outside the geographical borders, what can we do to manage them and how are they seen today.
Key words: alien species, impact, native species, natural range

Ecoterra, No. 13, pp. 32-33, 2007

Mihaela HETVARY, Claudia CICEU
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.

Abstract: LCDs (liquid crystal displays) are all around us - in laptop computers, digital clocks and watches, microwave ovens, CD players and many other electronic devices. LCDs are common because they offer some real advantages over other display technologies. Liquid crystal materials were discovered in 1888 by an Austrian botanist, F. Renitzer (Kelker, 1988), but only in the last 25 years have these materials been developed sufficiently to be used in electronically driven displays. This display itself contains mercury among other harmful chemicals. LCD’s, which are becoming more popular among new computers, don’t have the lead, because they don’t emit radiation, but still have the mercury to make them work.
Key words: LCD, impact, environment, harmful chemicals

Ecoterra, No. 13, pp. 34-35, 2007

Universitatea TRANSILVANIA Braşov
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.
IFIN HH Bucureşti
Constantin COSMA
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa Mediului

Abstract: In this article is presented a method for measurement of radon’s concentration in air through impulses counting. The advantages and the disadvantages of this method are also analysed. The importance of the process simulation before the making of a measuring display is highlighted. In simulation process the electromagnetic perturbation factors can be introduced and thus one can estimate the aspects concerning the immunity at perturbations, together with the functional aspects. In its actual form, the impulses counting method can not determine the type of the radioactive particle which has disintegrated because the impulses are prolonged and all have the same amplitude. In present the authors are working to develop a system for discrimination of particles type using a microcomputer with higher sampling speed, and also they try to increase the efficiency of presented method.
Key words: radon, impulses, measurement, microcomputer

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