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FIRST PAGE ECOTERRA NUMBER 6(21)/2009


Ecoterra, No. 21, p. 3, 2009
THE FUTURE OF POWER DISTRIBUTION
VIITORUL DISTRIBUŢIEI DE PUTERE

Brian HACKER, Chris EDRINGTON, Bogdan FERENC
Florida State University, Center for Advanced Power Systems, Tallahassee, USA

Abstract: Over the last decade, the energy crisis has made itself evident to the world. The ever-growing population and increase in demand for energy has put a severe strain on the earth’s resources. The idea of a Microgrid, which is discussed in this article, allows for the modification of the present-day power grid with power electronics and control systems to create the ability to disconnect portions of the grid. With the help of simulation software and real-time digital simulation hardware, our research efforts are to simulate loading conditions for a local power grid.
Key words: power saving, microgrid, PHEVs, energy cost


Ecoterra, No. 21, pp. 4-6, 2009
MEASUREMENT METHOD OF POWER NETWORK PERFORMANCES PARAMETERS
MĂSURAREA PARAMETRILOR DE PERFORMANŢĂ AI REŢELEI ELECTRICE

Ovidiu POP, Dan PITICĂ
Universitatea Tehnică din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Electronică, Telecomunicaţii şi Tehnologia Informaţiei

Abstract: In this paper are presented some measurement instruments of power quality, implemented using a Motorola Digital Signal Processor. Using these types of instruments is mandatory because the interferences introduced by power electronic equipment in the power grid lead to a distorted voltage waveform and to a lower quality of the supplied electric energy. Evaluation of power quality impose the knowledge of the main quality indicators of the electric energy and more important their variation in time. The implementation of this instrument was made using a Digital Signal Processor DSP56F805. The voltage and current waveforms is measured using galvanically isolated circuits and sampled with the DSP on-board analog-to-digital converters. The computation of the performance parameters is done based upon the harmonic content of the voltage and current waveforms. The harmonic content is obtained by using the Fourier Transform on these signals.
Keywords: power network, harmonics, power quality, digital signal processor


Ecoterra, No. 21, pp. 7-9, 2009
THE APPLICATION OF „FUZZY” LOGIC TO AN EQUALISATION BASIN ADJUSTMENT
APLICAREA LOGICII „FUZZY” LA OPTIMIZAREA UNUI BAZIN DE EGALIZARE

Endre DOMOKOS
Universitatea PANNONIA Veszprém, Ungaria
Eniko FAZAKAS
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Extensiunea Sf. Gheorghe

Abstract: Regulations systems based on fuzzy logic are applied more often in industrial wastewaters. The advantage of this systems consists in the possibility to solve several situations related with rapid or unexpected changes. In this article the regulation of an equalisation and damage treatment basin with discontinuous charging is presented.
Key words: industrial water, water treatment, equalisation basin, parameters variation


Ecoterra, No. 21, pp. 10-11, 2009
IDENTIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND INDIVIDUALIZATION OF FRESCO PIGMENTS THROUGH REFLECTIVE MICROSPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD
IDENTIFICAREA, CARACTERIZAREA ŞI INDIVIDUALIZAREA UNOR PIGMENŢI DE FRESCĂ PRIN METODA MICROSPECTROFOTOMETRICĂ

Ioan PETRESCU, Alexandru BOKOR, Oana GUI
Universitatea de Artă şi Design Cluj-Napoca
Lucian BARBU-TUDORAN
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca

Abstract: This paper presents a multispectral system of microscopic analysis designed for studying microscopic pigment particles and stratigraphic microsections. This spectro-microscope can be used effectively in preserving and restoring works of art that belong to the national and universal cultural heritage. The system is capable of recording and measuring reflection specters per pixel or per very small area (e.g. the dimension of a pigment microparticle) from a micro-stratigraphic section. These specters are almost as precise as those recorded with a spectrophotometer. The spectro-microscope enables the heaving of the reflection specter from a single pigment granule. The methodology we propose is complementary to other spectroscopic methods, thus contributing to the extension of the methodological basis for identifying and thoroughly analyzing pigments.
Key words: reflective spectromicroscopy, spectral analysis, pigments


Ecoterra, No. 21, pp. 12-13, 2009
OPERATING SIMULATION FOR A MOBILE BED BIOLOGICAL REACTOR
SIMULAREA UNOR PROCESE DE EPURARE BIOLOGICĂ UTILIZÂND ELEMENTE MOBILE ÎN SUSPENSIE

Diana ROBESCU, Aurelia CĂLIN
Universitatea Politehnică din Bucureşti, Facultatea de Energetică

Abstract: The biological wastewater treatment represents the most efficient procedure to remove organic compounds from wastewaters. During the last few years was improved a new biological treatment procedure, based on small plastic elements, usually of circular shape. They are maintained in suspension into the aeration tank by the air that the aeration system supplies and it represents the carriers for the biological growth. This paper proposed to simulate the behavior of such a biological reactor for different flow rates and organic loads of the influent wastewater. A series of scenarios were accomplished in order to set the reactor’s optimum configuration.
Key words: biological wastewater treatment, wastewater, mobile floating elements, simulation


Ecoterra, No. 21, pp. 14-15, 2009
MATHEMATICAL MODELLING AND NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF AERODYNAMIC FLOW FOR HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINES
MODELAREA ŞI SIMULAREA CURGERII AERODINAMICE LA TURBINELE EOLIENE CU AX ORIZONTAL

Ioana Corina MANDIŞ
Universitatea Politehnică din Bucureşti, Facultatea de Energetică

Abstract: The increasing quantity of carbon dioxide and the partial destruction of the ozone layer worried the specialists in power engineering and determine them to search new solutions to generate electricity form other sources that causes no harm to the environment. It is obviously that their attention was directed toward the renewable energy sources. The wind energy will be more and more used in the next decade, especially in Romania, where this domain is not so well developed. Liberalization of energy market will increase the exploitation of these renewable energy sources. Utilization of wind turbines will generate a positive impact on the energetic system.
Key words: mathematical modeling, numerical simulations wind turbine flow, blade


Ecoterra, No. 21, pp. 16-17, 2009
MATHEMATICAL MODELLING AND NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF AERODYNAMIC FLOW FOR VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINES
MODELAREA ŞI SIMULAREA CURGERII AERODINAMICE LA TURBINELE EOLIENE CU AX VERTICAL

Ioana Corina MANDIŞ, Dan ROBESCU
Universitatea Politehnică din Bucureşti, Facultatea de Energetică

Abstract: The energy demand in the whole world and in our country is in a continuous growth as an effect of the industrial and economical development. In Romania the areas with o good wind intensity have a small size and these areas are placed in the mountains and near the Black Sea. In the other geographic areas the wind has low intensity fact that imposed to be made researches regarding wind turbines that can be used for speeds lower than 8 m/s. This paper proposes a model of a wind turbine used in areas with low wind intensity.
Key words: mathematical modeling, numerical simulations, wind turbine, flow, blade


Ecoterra, No. 21, pp. 18-20, 2009
CERCETARI EXPERIMENTALE PENTRU DETERMINAREA CAPACITATII DE OXIGENARE SI A EFICIENTEI TRANSFERULUI INTR-UN SISTEM DE AERARE CU BULE MEDII
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCHES FOR THE DETERMINATION OF THE OXYGENATION CAPACITY AND TRANSFER EFFICIENCY INTO THE MEDIUM BUBBLE PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS

Diana ROBESCU, Aurelia CĂLIN
Universitatea Politehnică din Bucureşti, Facultatea de Energetică

Abstract: The main process to treat nitrogen and organic compounds in wastewater treatment plants is biological one. In this process aeration represents up to 70 % of the total energy expenditure of the plant. Optimizing aeration is therefore required to reduce operating costs, to guarantee a reliable and efficient treatment in such installations. This paper proposes to study the oxygen transfer process in a medium bubble aeration system used in mobile bed biofilm reactor technology. Different sets of experiments were conducted on a laboratory installation with the goal to determine the oxygen transfer performances of the aeration system.
Key words: biological wastewater treatment, mass transfer, aeration systems, oxygen requirement


Ecoterra, No. 21, pp. 21-23, 2009
GREEN EDUCATION IN ENGINEERING
EDUCAŢIA ECOLOGICĂ ÎN INGINERIE

Petre OGRUŢAN, Lia Elena ACIU
Universitatea TRANSILVANIA, Braşov

Abstract: In the present paper, there is proposed the introduction of a new aspect in Project-Oriented Engineering Education, which is the software simulation of the studied process. The software simulation with specialized types of software allows the discovery of essential aspects for the comprehension of the process and facilities this way the execution phase of the project. This concept was implemented as Green Education in Engineering at Transilvania University of Braşov. This subject was developed in two directions, non-ionizing and ionizing radiation. Whenever electricity is conducted through transmission lines, distribution lines or is used in appliances, they generate both electric and magnetic fields near the lines or appliances. This paper presents models and field measurements made with the students. In the field of ionizing radiations measurements were made with three different devices in two locations and the results are compared. The measurement devices are: Safety Siren 3 (US), GM45 (Geiger Muller Counter, US) and RadonM (Transilvania University of Braşov). The two locations are selected one with a low Radon concentration and one in an old building (Radon concentration measured with CR39 alpha track detectors).
Key words: green education, engineering, Radon, radiations


Ecoterra, No. 21, pp. 24-26, 2009
THE INFLUENCE OF THE ANTHROPIC FACTOR ON THE WATER QUALITY OF THE BISTRITA RIVER
INFLUENŢA FACTORULUI ANTROPIC ASUPRA CALITĂŢII APEI RÂULUI BISTRIŢA

Viorel MÂNDRUŢ
S.C. Dorna Medical S.R.L., punct de lucru Bistriţa

Abstract: Rivers and lakes are drinking water supply sources for many human comunities. Unfortunately, these natural water reservoires are frequently submit to pollution. Water quality monitoring activity is focused on water resources’s quality depending on the values witch express this stage, hence the importance of water monitoring. The influence of Bistriţa wastewater treatment plant on water’s quality in section Sărata downstream also indicated the efficiency of biological treatment with activated sludge. Activated sludge is a commonly used biological treatment process that is performed by a variable and mixed community of microorganisms, in which bacteria constitute the majority. This study proved that Bistriţa wastewater treatment plant improvements are insufficient to maintain Bistriţa river quality. In the absence of the third step of wastewater treatment which involves nitrification/denitrification and phosphorus removal, it is required the parallel monitoring of the nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria at Bistriţa wastewater treatment plant for the capacity of NH4+, NO2- and NO3- removal from the treated water. The levels of ammonia and nitrates in section Sărata downstream indicated that activated sludge process is inefficient. In favourable climate conditions these nutrients will cause eutrophisation which has a negative impact on quality state of water, menacing the normal progress of trophic chain processes in river.
Key words: wastewater treatment plant, water quality, biological treatment process, Bistriţa river quality


Ecoterra, No. 21, pp. 27-29, 2009
THE AIR POLLUTION AND THE ACID RAINS IN CLUJ-NAPOCA
POLUAREA AERULUI ŞI PLOILE ACIDE ÎN CLUJ-NAPOCA. PROIECT DE MEDIU

Leonora BARBU, Mariana SZENKOVITS
Grupul Şcolar de Chimie Industrială „Terapia”, Cluj-Napoca

Abstract: This project represents the results of a laborious research activity and monitoring of the state of the air in Cluj-Napoca, over a period of six months (October 2006 to March 2007), research that was achieved by the authors of the project, students and teachers from the “Terapia” Industrial Chemistry High School, starting from the hypothesis that the air breathed by the Cluj people does not obey the purity standards. The same team initiated in school and in the local community the campaign “Together for a cleaner air in Cluj-Napoca”, containing activities of informing and responsabilization of every Cluj inhabitant, concerning “the health” of the air. We want to prove to the others that it is possible, that each and all together can do more, every day, through our facts and attitude, for a breath of fresher air.
Key words: air pollution, acid rain, seeds germination, nitrogen acid, necroses


Ecoterra, No. 21, pp. 30-31, 2009
RESEARCHES UPON THE FLORA FROM „LACUL FRUMOS–MOSOROASA” SWAMP, BĂILE OLĂNEŞTI (VÂLCEA)
CERCETĂRI ASUPRA FLOREI MLAŞTINII ,,LACUL FRUMOS - MOSOROASA”, BĂILE OLĂNEŞTI (VÂLCEA)

Mihaela CRĂCIUN
Grup Şcolar Economic „Iustinian Marina”, Băile Olăneşti

Abstract: This paper presents the results of field research conducted in swamp land „Lacul Frumos - Mosoroasa” during june-august 2008. The study identified 28 families with 58 plant species.
Key words: Lacul Frumos-Mosoroasa, swamp, plant species


Ecoterra, No. 21, pp. 32-33, 2009
WEIGHT AND WEIGHT PERCEPTION IN AN URBAN SAMPLE OF OVO-LACTO-VEGETARIANS
GREUTATEA ŞI PERCEPŢIA ASUPRA GREUTĂŢII LA UN EŞANTION DE OVO-LACTO-VEGETARIENI DIN MEDIU URBAN

Lăcrămioara PETRE
Institutul de Antropologie al Academiei Române, Bucureşti

Abstract: Several studies have pointed out that the most of nutritional behaviour problems and especially undernutrition and obesity have as a main cause a distorted perception of  body weight. The aim of this paperwork is to study the differencies between thea real weight (according to body mass index) and the perception of it, and the nutritional behavioural changes needed in order to improve the nutritional status. This study was realized on a sample of 136 ovo-lacto-vegetarian subjects (88 women and 48 men) and, comparatively, on a witness sample of 208 omnivorous subjects (128 women and 80 men). The results shown that 7.99 % of OLV women and 8.6 % of the omnivorous ones, and also 12.50 % of omnivorous men have a distorted perception of their own body weight.
Key words: weight, weight perception, nutritional status, ovo-lacto-vegetarians


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