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FIRST PAGE ECOTERRA NUMBER 7(25)/2010


Ecoterra, No. 25, pp. 1-8, 2010

Mihai BARAC
Institutul Naţional de Cercetări şi Documentări Îmbunătăţiri Funciare - S.C. ISPIF S.A. Bucureşti
László KUTI, Ioan KALMÁR
Magyar Állami Földtani Intézet, Budapest

Abstract: Loess-like deposits, hydrogeological data and ground stability - environmental and urban geological study in model aria from Galaţi municipium, Romania. Following some damage events in buildings from the new quartiers, the Mayor’s Office of Galaţi has solicited an experimental study in Eastern side of town, in a 0.75 sqkm model area. In this zone, there are 25 boreholes and piezometric wells in which stratigraphical, geotechnical and hydrogeological observations were performed.
   The geological background is constitued by Upper Pliocene - lover Pleistocene aged Barboşi Red sandy clay Formation which supports the Mindel to Würm aged loess-like (silty) deposits wich reaches 50 m thickness. The panel blocks were built up on this macroporous ground mainly in ’70s of the last century. The analyse of groundwater put in evidence both hypsometric and hydrochemical anomaly (total salt, K+, Cl-, SO42-, NO3- and Cu2+-concentrations) around of borehole F231, in which deformations of surface were observed. It is probable, that the anomaly is caused by damage of sludge water canalisation system. Using data of existent and newly drilled boreholes, the method may be useful for testing the state and stability of the ground in similar urban environment.

Key words: Galaţi, loess, groundwater, hydrochemistry, pollution, building instability


Ecoterra, No. 25, pp. 9-16, 2010

Corina BERKESY
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.
Laszlo Berkesy
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa Mediului
Mărioara ŞANDRU, Maria SOMEŞAN
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.

Abstract: Theoretical data on the microbiology of sludges in the purging stations. Wastewaters purification can be more or less complex, subject to the physical-chemical and microbiological features of the waters and to the quality requirements regarding the discharge into the receiving rivers. The used waters that are dominantly organic in character can be treated by physical-chemical and/or biological processes; lastly, the removal of any impurifying organic substances is made by biochemical processes, i.e. the metabolic processes of the microorganisms.
In this work here we aim at outlining the ways of microbiologically controlling active sludge: characteristic microorganisms, the making up of the active sludge and certain deficiencies appeared in the sludge creation and the causes thereof.
The composition of the biocenoses and the organic substances removal yield depend on the environmental conditions, such as the used water composition and impurities concentration, the temperature, the concentration of the dissolved oxygen and how the purging plant is exploited, which call for a correlation of the microbiological control results to the physical-chemical parameters.

Keywords: activ sludge, composition of the biocenoses, environmental conditions, bioindicators


Ecoterra, No. 25, pp. 17-24, 2010

Dionisie BUBURUZ
Institute of Ecology and Geography of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova
Victoria NISTREANU
Institute of Zoology, Academy of Sciences of Moldova

Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to assess the possible ecological impact on the environment during the accomplishment of prospecting and exploitation of petroleum deposit Valeni, which is located almost entirely within the scientific reserve "Prutul de Jos", and to determine the potential ecological consequences on the functionality of scientific reserve "Prutul de Jos". Exploration, exploitation, conservation, liquidation and re-cultivation activities, in normal working conditions will not lead to irreversible changes of ecosystems of Valeni oil deposit. A more pronounced impact on ecosystems will occur during the construction of access roads and drilling platforms, which will lead to changes in landscape, which will be partially restored after recultivation.
         
Key words: Prut River, environment protection, biodiversity, protected areas, ecologic impact, implementation instrument


Ecoterra, No. 25, pp. 25-30, 2010

Ion Castraveţ
Institutul de Ecologie şi Geografie al Academiei de Ştiinţe a Moldovei

Abstract: The principles of parasitic ecosystems formation. Out of many concepts reflecting the essence of various points of view concerning the phenomenon of parasitism the greatest interest present: the ecological, metabolic, pathophysiological and probably other too. However, they don’t completely reflect the fundamental essence of parasitism definition either due to the still incomplete understanding of this complex phenomenon, on the basis of the available literature data and scientific research results of many years we advance the hypothesis defining parasitism as the reflection of all parasites life activity expressed in the form of parasitic process. So, the main objective of parasitology includes the study of parasitic processes at different levels: global, continental, regional, biotopical, elementary of each infected organism. We have also determined the range of peculiarities characteristics of these processes, which: 1 - express the parasites adaptive potential; 2 - are based on the relationships between the host organisms; 3 - reflects the phylogenetic age of parasites; 4 - determines the calitative and cantitative proportion of parasites, 5 -  determines the specificity and forms of interrelations of parasitocenosis components; 6 - condition growth rhythms (heterochronicity) and parasites in concrete parasitocenosis; 7 - stabilize the tension level of contradictions between parasites and host organism. Combining all the components of any parasitic process we get complete idea of it. So, traditionally, only separate aspects of parasitic processes have been registered. Generally, the forma of clinical manifestation of parasites have been described (shown in point 7), which, as a matter of fact reflected the final (pathophysiological) stage of a particular parasitic disease. All these makes up the parasitologic formula, by the use of which, it is possible to “compute” a concrete parasitologic situation and forecast its development in the future.
 Key words: parasite, parasitic process, open ecosystem, closed ecosistem, heterochrony


Ecoterra, No. 25, pp. 31-36, 2010

Raluca CĂLBUREAN
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţe Economice şi Gestiunea Afacerilor
Carmen ROBA
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa Mediului

Abstract: The paradigm of sustainable development through economical environmental policy. Many environmental problems now extend the national level, sometimes even threatening the stability of the Earth’s life-support systems. As the costs of environmental programs increased it became necessary to reconsider the objectives, made even more complicated by the multifunctional character of sustainable development. Global environmental mechanisms intent to build an integrated environmental policymaking and management framework concerning the tasks of a shared global ecosystem. The encounter is to combine the environmental protection with continuing economic growth in an over the long term sustainable way. Sustainable development is undergoing a new shape by expressing its interdisciplinary features over its economic, social and environmental dimension. Its essence consists in the fact that economic development issues are to be resolved only by taking into account environmental requirements and needs of social security.
            The needs of all countries, an assurance from the strong to help the weak, the worry about the proper development of the environment and an understanding that the state and the international community must intervene on behalf of the public interest to attain greater social equity and bring about more sustainable patterns of production and consumption, characterizes the sustainable development paradigm.
            This paper stresses that it is necessary to fully acknowledge the inborn trade-off between environmental integrity, economic efficiency and equity through pining for a sustainable development framework.
Key words: environment policy, sustainable development, economy, globalisation


Ecoterra, No. 25, pp. 37-42, 2010

Swverin CĂZĂNESCU, Florin MĂRĂCINEANU
USAMV Bucureşti, Facultatea de Îmbunătăţiri Funciare şi Ingineria Mediului
Oana GUI
Universitatea de Artă şi Design din Cluj Napoca

Abstract: StormNet - software application with advanced functions for hydrological and hydraulic analysis and modeling. This paper aims to present a software application - StormNet, which has a high degree of compatibility with the requirements from our country in the field of land reclamation and environmental engineering. The application allows a more effective modeling and design process, in the field of land reclamation (water removing, drainage) and infrastructure works (wastewater and rainfall runoff collection networks). The software application testing was performed in the frame of PhD program “Studies and research regarding the use of information technology in the design process of the facilities for water excess control and prevention in rural area” developed by PhD student eng. Severin Căzănescu, within Land Reclamation and Environmental Engineering Faculty, Bucharest.

 Keywords: drainage, hydrology, hydraulics, software, sustainable development


Ecoterra, No. 25, pp. 43-48, 2010

Severin CĂZĂNESCU, Adriana PIENARU
USAMV - FIFIM Bucureşti
Oana GUI
Universitatea de Artă şi Design, Cluj – Napoca
Simona MĂLUREANU
ANCS, Ministerul Educaţiei, Cercetării, Tineretului şi Sportului, Bucureşti

Abstract: Sewage and drainage networks design with urbano canalis software. Urbano Canalis is a software application developed by StudioARS Company in Croatia, to model and design sewage and drainage network systems.

The present paper illustrates the use of Urbano Canalis application in the frame of an urban infrastructure project. The project main objective was to design the sewage and drainage system for a new residential area in Slobozia town, taking into consideration the technical data imposed by the development program of the district, meaning new buildings for dwellings, education and commerce.

The project design workflow using Urbano Canalis is emphasized with real world examples from the exemplified study case, such as: 3D Digital Terrain Modeling, networks routing on the general layout, longitudinal profiles and sections generation.

The software application performs hydraulic computations in accordance with Romanian technical regulations and has the national standards and norms for the sewage and drainage design fully implemented.

This paper is a demonstration of Urbano Canalis capabilities applied to a large project, pointing out to specific tools and features, which allow creating drawings and performing hydraulic computations in little time with high performance and efficiency.

 Keywords: drainage, sewage, software, sustainable development


Ecoterra, No. 25, pp. 49-58, 2010

Ana Angela CORDOŞ
Agenţia pentru Protecţia Mediului Bistriţa-Năsăud
Dumitru RISTOIU
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa Mediului

Abstract: Uptake of heavy metals from soil to vegetation. Plants capture the necessary elements of their environment, with a multitude of other existing elements in that environment. Transfer of chemical elements in the plant environment is achieved by passing the barrier walls and external protective membrane. Once inside the plant penetrated these elements are distributed in areas that are used for growth, reproduction and development are stored movement called transportation. Biological transfer and transport, are produced and directed 4 major natural forces: concentration, hydrostatic pressure, gravity and electric field. Each of these forces have intervened in some areas and/or times and in conjunction of complex biochemical reactions, determine where and in what proportions are managed and used items. This paper uses data analysis of different soil and vegetation sampling points in Bistrita-Nasaud, showing qualitatively and quantitatively by vegetation uptake of heavy metals in environmental soil.
Keywords: heavy metals, soil, vegetation, asimilation, trancefer, transport


Ecoterra, No. 25, pp. 59-64, 2010

Ana Angela Cordoş
Agenţia pentru Protecţia Mediului, Bistriţa
Dana Florina Muntean
Agenţia pentru Protecţia Mediului, Cluj
Dumitru Ristoiu
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa Mediului

Abstract: Heavy metals in the atmosphere as a source of soil pollution. Heavy metals that pollute the environment comes mainly from industrial activities such as ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, mining and ore concentration, chemical industry, metal processing, etc. In addition, the traffic produces a significant amount of heavy metals. When heavy metals appear in the dust (total suspended particulate (TSP) or in smaller fractions of PM10 and PM2, 5 inevitably, they will settle on the ground. Due to their molecular masses large, heavy metals in the atmosphere will be dispersed far away from the source they put down generally on its adjacent area. The pollutants in the atmosphere are thus an important source of soil pollution, especially in areas with high concentrations of emissions, such as industrial zones or intense transit routes.

 Key words: heavy metals, powders, air, soil, trancefer


Ecoterra, no. 25, pp. 65-70, 2010

Mihaela Crăciun
CNI Matei Basarab, Râmnicu-Vâlcea
Ana-Maria Ciovică
Şcoala cu clasele I-VIII nr. 13, Râmnicu-Vâlcea

Abstract: Taxonomical diversity of medicine plants (Cormophyta) from Olăneşti basin. The Olăneşti basin, a territory with a vast and variat vegetation constitute an important source of medicine plants. The cormofic flora, spontaneity and cultivated in the basin comprise 249 species witch belongs at 200 genra, 70 botanical families, 6 classes and 3 filums.
Key words: vegetation, medicine plants, flora, species


Ecoterra, no. 25, pp. 71-78, 2010

Mircea CRĂCIUN, Alexandru BRENDEA, Corina BERKESY, Mărioara ŞANDRU, Maria SOMEŞAN
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.

Abstract: Experimentations  performed  in  the  compact  stations  meant  to  purify  the  domestic  wastewaters  of  small  localities. The compact station studied envisages the development of the new technology for purging used waters with a high biological load, originated from various industries, but adaptable to the domestic consumers as well, by rendering the biological purging step more efficient. These compact purging stations can purify both domestic used waters and high loaded industrial wastewaters, whose values of the CBO5 exceed 1000 mg/l and which are able to tolerate great oscillations in terms of flow rate and water loading.
The following quality indicators have been selected for assessing wastewaters: the total suspended matters, the chemical consumption of oxygen, the biochemical consumption of oxygen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus.
The monitoring of the wastewaters quality parameters has led to such an adjustment of the compact station as to entail continuous functioning at parameter values below those stipulated in the normative document. The efficiency of the station from the standpoint of the quality parameters envisaged was calculated, as well.
The purging stations of the kind of that presented in the work are functionally flexible, adapting themselves easily to the variation of the wastewaters flow rate and composition. Their exploitation is easy and the consumption of energy is low.
 Key words: compact station, industrial wastewater, quality parameters, monitoring


Ecoterra, no. 25, pp. 79-84, 2010

Ádám CSORBA, Győző JORDÁN
Geological Institute of Hungary - Environmental Geology Department

Abstract: Uncontrolled mine waste and the related Acid Mine Drainage in the Recsk Mining Area is one of the most serious environmental problems to be solved in the region. To map secondary Fe-bearing minerals related to sulfide oxidation airborne and ground-based remote sensed dataset was analyzed. The analysis of the available airborne dataset delineated areas showing the spectral characteristics of jarosite, goethite and hematite. The spatial distribution of these minerals indicates the oxidation of sulfide minerals and the neutralization process of acidic water formed by this process. Oxidation centers appear in the area of recently operating mines under control and in the abandoned Recsk Mining Area, where the mine waste is uncontrolled. The detailed study of two waste rock piles showing the clearest spatial pattern of secondary minerals shows that: (1) the oxidation of sulfide minerals and accumulation of secondary Fe-bearing phases is the most significant process occurring on the piles based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA), (2) the mineralogy and oxidation state of the piles and thus their acid generating potential is differing, (3) there is a strong relationship between the results of PCA, mineralogy based on XRD analysis and the concentration of Pb, Hg, Zn and Cr. The results highlight the high capacity of sulfide containing mine waste to release acidic fluids and heavy metals into environment, as well the effectiveness of hyperspectral mapping methods to delineate areas of high contamination potential.
 Keywords: acid mine drainage, reflectance spectroscopy, hyperspectral, mining related contamination, secondary minerals, jarosite, goethite, hematite


Ecoterra, no. 25, pp. 85-90, 2010

Constantin-Nicolae DRĂGĂNESCU, Diana PRUNARU
S.C. Electroputere S.A. Craiova

Abstract: The possibility of using ozone for sterilization of wooden vessels for storing or preserving wines. To emphasize the importance of preserving wines, this paper briefly reviews the diseases and microbiological factors that affect their chemical and organoleptic qualities. Then the paper proposes using ozone sterilization for wooden pots and their proper preservation. Sterilization efficiency control will be made by using a growth medium, type agar to culture the microorganisms in Petri dishes.
 Key words: ozone, sterilization, wines, storing, preserving


Ecoterra, no. 25, pp. 91-96, 2010

Ioan DUNCA
Primăria Şincai - judeţul Mureş
Florin MILĂŞAN
Primăria Râciu - judeţul Mureş
Raluca-Ionela CHERTES
Universitatea Petru Maior - Târgu Mureş
Olga DUNCA
Gimnaziul de Stat Gh. Şincai - comuna Râciu

Abstract: The management of household wastes in the plain area of Mureş county. Given the global trends concerning the effective recycling of waste, it has been established the following solution for Râciu commune: the construction of a selection processing and transfer platform, which will ensure the acquisition of waste from an area which includes the city of Sărmaşu and 10 communes (Rîciu, Pogăceaua, Băla, Sânpetru de Câmpie, Grebenişu de Câmpie, Ceuaşu de Câmpie, Şincai, Crăieşti, Miheşu de Câmpie, Şăulia).
   Râciu mayoralty has an ongoing PHARE ESC 2005 project entitled Execution transfer station for household waste - the plain area of Mureş County. The project is about 979,518.90 EURO and the amount produced by the EU grant is 875 000 EUROS, as a percentage of 89.33%.
   The household waste will be sorted in order to produce compost and recyclable materials, while as the final waste will be transported in closed containers to store in Turda. The site for waste transfer station has been established on a land with an area of 1065 m2, in an area surrounding Râciu locality.
   The overall objective of the project is to improve the collection, transport and primary processing methods of waste from the 11 partner localities.
   In order to achieve the overall objective of the project, a specific objective has been established, that is the creation of a waste system of economic management, environmentally sound and profitable. Group The target is the 31,696 residents of the 11 partner localities, 557 public institutions and businesses which are located in these localities.
   The target group of the project is formed by those 31.696 inhabitants of the 11 partner localities, 557 public institutions and economic agents which have their headquarters in these localities. The situation of the target group will improve under economic aspect by creating a modern infrastructure for waste collection. Furthermore, encouraging waste selective collection will increase the investment attractiveness of the area, leading to long term considerable growth of the revenues attracted to the local budget
 Key words: resources, household waste, impact, selection, processing, transfer, recycling


Ecoterra, no. 25, pp. 97-104, 2010

Ioan Encian
Comisia Naţională pentru Controlul Activităţilor Nucleare - Bucureşti

Abstract: Population exposure to radiations from nuclear and radiological accidents. Amount of world-wide natural radioactivity, centered on an average of 2.4 mSv per year, is at the discretion of a man who through its activities can unbalance, sometimes catastrophic, with environmental effects more or less significant. One such 'opportunity' is the appearance of various incidents or accidents occurred as a result of use by man-made sources of nuclear radiation. In a period of 50 years after the first reactor became operational (1942) took place in the world a total of 14 accidents occurred at operational nuclear reactors. Other nuclear accidents have occurred at some nuclear facilities, such as lost of radioactive sources used in industry, medicine and research. If in case of accidents occurring in nuclear reactors, environmental contamination with radioactive elements can be large, affecting large areas, if point sources of radiation accidents, even if high activity, impact and consequences on the environment and living beings, is a local one, on small areas
 Key words: nuclear accidents, radioisotope, radiation dose, nuclear reactor, radiation source, overdose


Ecoterra, no. 25, pp. 105-112, 2010

Vasile Ioan GLIGA, Augustin Liviu MUNTEANU
Universitatea Tehnică din Cluj-Napoca, ARACO, Filiala Cluj-Napoca

Abstract: Power renewable energy and aeolian generator structures manufactures using soft magnetic composite. Renewables energy has a new approach and many advantages. The paper deal with a new type of  materials for aeolian generators used in wind power conversion, using powder metallurgy technology of soft magnetic composite Ancorbond 45P or Somaloy 700.
 Keywords: composite matherials, aeolian energy, power conversion


Ecoterra, no. 25, pp. 113-118, 2010

Oana GUI, Theo MUREŞAN
Universitatea de Artă şi Design, Cluj-Napoca
Simona MĂLUREANU
ANCS, Ministerul Educaţiei, Cercetării, Tineretului şi Sportului, Bucureşti
Severin CĂZĂNESCU
USAMV - FIFIM Bucureşti

Abstract: The present paper is intended to draw attention at some issues regarding the use of the so called “instrumentation cloud” technique in scientific investigation of artworks from the cultural heritage. In a similar way to a microscope for a biologist or a telescope for an astronomer, the computer techniques, suitably refined, tested, and informed by art conservation-restoration knowledge, will expand the power of conservators and art historians as they address problems in cultural heritage preservation, such as understanding the working methods and materials used by artists. Scientific methods will give a deeper understanding of artworks, allowing conservation-restoration professionals to establish a better methodology for their specific work.

 Keywords: instrumentation cloud, cultural heritage, art work monitoring


Ecoterra, no. 25, pp. 119-124, 2010

Andor Komives
Universitatea de Artă şi Design Cluj-Napoca

Abstract: The necessity of environmental education throughout art. The green planet became a placed lived by people, only yesterday an immaculate space now fighting under the burden of our ignorance. Today, the lasting of natural resources and the global warming effect of human activities represent the main factors that impose the limitations for every model of society development. This is the moment when we acknowledge that each one of us can contribute to preserving the environment by changing our own life style.
   The biggest obstacle in changing the human’s attitude towards the protection of the environment is the small amount of information and the difficult access to it. The humans don’t realize how important are these little changes, so they tend to ignore or become skeptical regarding the environmental problems. Even more, it is well known that education is more efficient when offered in school where actually the main models of behavior are established.
   One of the proposed solutions for changing human behavior towards protecting the environment is an ecological education sustained over long periods of time. The same purpose is accomplished with the help of the new artistic movements (installation, performance, land-art etc.) alongside an informational and educational program and actions organized in schools.
   „The necessity of environmental education throughout art” is an active appeal for environmental education throughout art due to its sensitive impact that art can have on the public, the viewer, especially the young people.
   The paper is structured in tree parts: Argumentation, Purpose and Objectives, Specific actions and final products. The conclusions are syntheses of the necessities of environmental education trough art.
   The presented projects are running over a period of five years and are classified in projects that are concerned mainly on the cultural medium and projects focused on natural medium. By associating the cultural with the natural we wanted to underline that art is not just a way of expression the sensitivity, the personal feelings of the artist but can be used also in educative purposes, especially when concerning the young generation.                                                                                                                        
Key words: medium, change, education, nature, responsibility, land-art


Ecoterra, no. 25, pp. 125-130, 2010

Ioana Corina MANDIŞ, Diana ROBESCU, Bogdan Dumitru NĂSĂRÎMBĂ-GRECESCU
Universitatea Politehnica Bucureşti, Facultatea de Energetică

Abstract: Advanced wastewater treatment processes - flotation. Water pollution - contamination - means the degradation of the physical, chemical or biological parameters, by directly or indirectly causes determined by human activities or natural processes; they make water to become unfit for normal use. Fat extraction from water is a vital requirement for the aeration process realized inside the biological tank. Fat/grease presence in the aqueous system from biological tank will disrupt the process of oxygen transfer from air into water by changing conditions at the interface of two fluid phases.
 Key words:  flotation, wastewater treatment, dissolved air, dispersed air


Ecoterra, no. 25, pp. 131-134, 2010

Delia MARCU, Constantin COSMA
Babeş-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Environmental Science
Anca BUTIUC-KEUL
Babeş-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Biology and Geology

Abstract. Gamma radiation was reported to induce oxidative stress with overproduction of reactive oxygen species. One of the protective mechanisms to counteract the effects of reactive oxygen species in cellular compartments is the enzymatic system, which operate with the sequential and simultaneous actions of a large number of enzymes. In order to study the effects of gamma rays on  the activity of peroxidases (POX) and superoxide-dismutase (SOD) enzymes of maize hybrid, Turda Star, current experiment involves seed irradiation at doses of 2, 5, 15, 30 and 50 Gy, using a 60Co-gamma radiation source. Due to the high resistance to different environmental stressors of the vegetal material no significant changes were observed between the irradiated and control samples.  
 Key words: gamma irradiation, peroxidase, superoxid-dismutase


Ecoterra, no. 25, pp. 135-140, 2010

Mircea MOLDOVAN, Constantin COSMA, Dan Constantin NIŢĂ
Universitatea Babeş Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa şi Igineria Mediului
Teofana SFERLE
Liceul UCECOM “Spiru Haret”, Cluj-Napoca

Abstract: Measurements of radium in waters from Transylvania. The occurrence of natural radionuclides from 238U and 232Th series in drinking water has been the subject of extensive studies. Most of these studies were concerned with the drinking water standards for grossalpha activity and Ra, established by the Environmental Protection Agency, and World Health Organization. These studies have been performed mostly for the assessment of the dose and the risk that results from drinking this type of water. Radium-226 and its daughter products are responsible for a major fraction of the internal dose received by humans from naturally occurring radionuclides. It has long been known also that many mineral springs contain relatively high concentrations of radium and radon. Published values of 226Ra in mineral waters ranged to more than 3.7 Bql–1 (100 pCil–1), several times greater than values normally reported for public water supplies. The consumption varies around 1-2 l person–1 day–1. It has been determined in many cases, in different countries, that the 226Ra concentration water is higher. The enrichment of radium in drinking water and food enhances the ingestion dose due to its long physical and biological half-life. The elevated ingestion of 226Ra might provide an annual internal dose near to 0.1 mSv year–1 that is the reference level recommended by the World Health Organization. Therefore, the determination of the concentration of 226Ra in water has become important.
            This paper presents measurements of radium in waters (springs and wells) from north-west of Romania. Measurements were made in over 200 locations in different areas of the Transylvania. 65 water samples were collected from springs and 165 samples was taken from wells. The average concentration of radium in the water from springs is 125 mBql-1, while the average concentration of radium in the waters wells is 98.5 mBql-1. Using the Lucas cells with the device Luk 3A, the radium concentration was determined directly, after the radon balanced with radium. From these measurements, the corresponding annual effective ingestion dose was determined.
Key words: equilibrium, radium, Luk3C, lucas cell, anual dose


Ecoterra, no. 25, pp. 141-146, 2010

Doina NISTOR, Mariana MINCU
INCDPM Bucureşti

Abstract: Technologies for treatment of wastewater resulted from baking yeast industry. Baking yeast industry is a serious threat to the environment due to the large volume of wastewater generated (56x106m3/year) and due to increased potential pollution. The impact of discharges these categories of wastewater on natural resources is to produce deficits oxygen, releasing unpleasant odors and microbial development. Also, the content of furfural, resins and tanning of these waters has toxic effects on fish. The presence of ammonium salts and phosphates, added to the tehnological process of obtaining the suitable nutrient medium for the development of yeasts, increases the eutrophic effect of the natural receptors. The treatment of discharged wastewaters from the yeast plant represents a means to prevent and control pollution of the natural receptors.
 Key words: bakery yeast, impact, treatment technologies, optimal solution


Ecoterra, no. 25, pp. 147-152, 2010

Petre OGRUŢAN
Universitatea Transilvania din Braşov - Catedra de Electronică şi Calculatoare
Alexandru CIOCEA
Intercomputer SRL Braşov
Liviu SUCIU
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.
Catinca OGRUŢAN
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca

Abstract: The computer printers manufacturers between the economical interests and the environmental friendliness. Modern world needs printed documents more and more. The problem that arises increasingly dramatically originates from the fact that a printer uses consumable materials under the form of ink cartridges or of toners. The used cartridges accumulate in large quantities and their dumping is likely to give rise to environmental problems. This article tackles with a few aspects linked to the used cartridges, tightly connected to the responsibility of the manufacturing companies. The problem of the toxicity of the chemical substances existing in these cartridges is not included in the realm of interest of this article.
The spreading of the printers with non-refillable cartridges has led to the appearance of some paradoxical problems. For instance, a HP 1018 printer with a second-hand refillable cartridge is marketed for approximately € 150, whereas a new HP P1005 printer with similar characteristics and with a non-refillable cartridge costs approx. € 90.
What can each of us, the users, do for limiting the number of cartridges thrown down? First, this problem needs acknowledging as an attack to the environment. Then the users should, upon buying a printer, take into account, as a selection criterion, the degree of pollution of the environment; they should consequently buy only from the dealers that take over the used cartridges for recycling purposes and they should give over the used cartridges upon exchanging them. The selection of a printer whose cartridges have an as large capacity as possible or with refillable cartridges, if possible, is important, but this proves to be more and more difficult nowadays. On the long run, the environmental friendliness is doubled by economical advantages, too: thus, if one selects a printer for a digital copying machine, such as the Canon IR series, the cartridge would be for 8000 pages and the price per page would be € 0.37/100 pages, unlike the example in section 2, i.e. the multifunctional device with a HP Q8418B Photosmart jet, where the price is € 9,5/100 pages written in black.
The study performed by the Four Elements company for HP shows that the use of original cartridges instead of remanufactured ones entails a more reduced impact on the environment, which is a debatable conclusion. The total amount of trash remained after the use of the remanufactured cartridges is 44 % larger, the conclusion of the study supporting HP’s financial interests.
Last, but not least, the replacement, as an information support, of paper with magnetic, optical or semi-conductive supports leads to the decrease of the number of cartridges used and to paper saving. Orange’s initiative to send the bill electronically, IEEE’s (Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers) to send its newsletters by e-mail are worth mentioning.
The producers have placed on the market cheap models, whose consumable cartridges have a lower and lower capacity, consequetly with negative effects on the environment. Obviously, there have also appeared initiatives to take over, free of charge, the cartridges used, however the calculations show an approximate amount of 25 thousand tons of used cartridges per year and taken over only 90 thousand tons since 1992 till present time.
Keywords: ink cartridges, tonners, environment, pollution


Ecoterra, no. 25, pp. 153-160, 2010

Dumitru RISTOIU, Melinda Haydee KOVACS
Environmental Science and Engineering Faculty, Babes-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca
Cezara VOICA
National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Cluj-Napoca
Tania RISTOIU
Technical University from Cluj-Napoca

Abstract: Drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are formed when a disinfectant reacts with natural organic matter (NOM) and/or bromide/iodide present in water. Trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) are the two most prevalent classes of DBPs in chlorinated waters. These byproducts are bringing under control owing to their potential health risk, as well acting as surrogates for the control of other halogenated DBPs of health concern.
Drinking water supplied from 5 water treatment plant (Gilău, Jibou, Dej, Vârşolş, Beclean) and three types of bottled water were analyzed using gas chromatography engaged with an quadrupole mass spectrometer (GC-QMS) and with a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD) after HS and HS-SPME extraction in order to evaluate quantitatively and qualitatively the presence of halogenated organic compounds presence in them. During the analysis halogenated organic compounds containing chlorine were the most prevalent, their range being detected between 0.2-120 mg·L-1 while compounds containing Br and I in their structure were detected in lower amount, their range being between 0.4-36 and 0.5-21 mg·L-1, respectively. Differences between presences of different halogenated compounds as well their discrete amount could be attributed to different treatment technology used in the five water treatment plants as well to chemically diverse form of water matrices as presence of Br and I compounds. As regards bottled water low amount of halogenated compounds were detected, their level didn’t exceeding 10 mg·L-1.
 Key words: halogenated disinfection byproducts, bottled water, water treatment plant


Ecoterra, no. 25, pp. 161-166

Carmen ROBA, Iovanca HAIDUC
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa Mediului
Raluca CĂLBUREAN
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţe Economice şi Gestiunea Afacerilor
Simion BELDEAN-GALEA
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa Mediului

Abstract: The determination of petroleum hydrocarbons by fluorescence spectrometry, in different aquifers within the Oradea and Săcuieni perimeters (Bihor county). In the present study the content of petroleum hydrocarbons in different water samples (geothermal, drinking and surface water) originating from different aquifers situated in Oradea and Săcuieni perimeters was analyzed. The method consisted of extraction of the petroleum hydrocarbons present in the aqueous matrix, with organic solvent (n-hexane), followed by fluorescence spectrometry analysis.
            The results showed significant differences regarding the petroleum hydrocarbons content of investigaterd aquifers. The water samples prelevated from Oradea area had lower petroleum hydrocarbons content than the waters sampled from the Săcuieni perimeter. The results showed that the waste geothermal waterrs do not respect the maximul level allowed for surface water discharge which is 5 mg/l.
            Considering the severe effects of these compounds on the environment and human health, the high levels of petroleum hydrocarbons in Săcuieni aquifers represents an ikportant risk factor. In this case mesurements in order to reduce the contaminant level are required. A first step would be to minimize the volume of waste geothermal water discharged into the natural wsters and to treat the waste water prior to discharge. The treatment techniques currently used for the waste water contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbon include: the use of silt traps, sand filters, or flotation processes and coagulation.
Key words: petroleum hydrocarbons, fluorescence spectrometry, geothermal waters


Ecoterra, no. 25, pp. 167-174, 2010

Cristina Rusu, Alin Nicula, Claudiu Gavriloaie
Colegiul Tehnic ,,INFOEL” Bistriţa

Abstract: Wastes management in Bistriţa-Năsăud county: present and future status. The paper deals with the problem of wastes management in Bistriţa-Năsăud county, its present and future status. The present  wastes management has to be improved in order to reduce the impact upon the environment. For the future, the situation can improve due to the appearance of the Wastes Management Integrated System.
 Key words: ecology, environment, wastes, impact, trancefer stations


Ecoterra, no. 25, pp. 175-180, 2010

Oana Alexandra RUSU, Robert Csaba BEGY, Dan Constantin NIŢĂ, Constantin COSMA
University Babeş-Bolyai from Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Environmental Science

Abstract. Radium is a naturally occurring element, found mainly in rocks, soil and mineral and underground waters. Radium-226, a member of the uranium decay series, is the most abundant isotope of this element and the most significant in terms of population dose given its relatively long life. On the other hand, radium content in natural waters has been used as a geochemical tracer to evaluate geophysical processes. A method that has been successfully applied for radium determination is alpha spectrometry. This method is extremely useful and sensitive for detection of alpha-emitting nuclides mainly because of the detector’s extremely low background. In this paper we present the determination of radium by sorption on manganese dioxide coated discs followed by alpha spectrometry. Exposing a substrate to a hot potassium permanganate solution generates the MnO2 films. This substrate is then immersed in a beaker containing the sample of radium. This method is suitable for determination of radium isotopes if the adsorption of radium is carried out at neutral pH. Radium is determined directly by measuring the completely dried film with a solid-state alpha detector.
 Key words: radium, alpha spectrometry, manganese dioxide


Ecoterra, no. 25, pp. 181-184, 2010

Radu SINIAVSCHI, Cristian PETRESCU, Camelia PETRESCU, Ion MATEESCU
S.C. Green Heat Systems S.R.L.

Abstract: Integrated systems technology solutions for renewable energies in energy eficiency of buildings. This scientific paper presents the renewable energies and the heating systems using these forms of energy. Renewable energy refers to forms of energy produced by trasfering energy resulted from natural renewable precesses. The renewable sources of energy are: wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, hydropower, biomass and biofuel. The wind power is obtained due to airflows that run wind turbines. The solar energy is the energy derived from the sun through the form of solar radiation. The heating systems that run on renewable energies are common used in the same time for a better efficiency. These systems are used to produce thermal energy, hot water and electricity.

 Key words: renewable energies, energetic efficiency, heating system, technologies


Ecoterra, no. 25, pp. 185-190, 2010

Daniela Simona ŢÎRA
Nanobiophotonics Laboratory, ICEI, Babeş-Bolyai University
Sorin ULINICI
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.
Simion AŞTILEAN
Nanobiophotonics Laboratory, ICEI, Babeş-Bolyai University

Abstract: Fluorescence sensors for detection of Zn2+ ions in water. In this study we focused on studying the interaction between the gold nanoparticles and Rhodamine B (RhB) molecules and the possibility of detecting  zinc ions based on “turning-on” the fluorescence of the dye. The structures obtained were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fluorescence spectroscopy. We found out that gold nanoparticles (NPs) are coated with H-aggregates of RhB and that Zn2+ ions yield a fluorescence enhancement that allowed us to detect their presence in water with good sensibility (ppm), which demonstrate that our probe is suitable to screen zinc ions in water.
Key words: molecules, ions, fluorescence, spectroscopy, nanoparticles


Ecoterra, no. 25, pp. 191-194, 2010

Sorin ULINICI, Dumitru VÂJU, Sever VARVARI, Gabriela BĂISAN
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.

Abstract: System of pool water treatment with ozone and ultraviolet radiation. The classical methods of disinfecting the water of the swimming pools call for the intensive use of certain chemical substances, especially chlorine compounds and brome compounds, which might entail the appearance of potentially toxic secondary compounds. In order to avoid the appearance of these secondary compounds and to obtain water free of microorganisms, a water disinfection and treatment ecological plant was implemented for an Olympic swimming pool, including steps of treatment with ozone and photolysis in the reactor with UV X-rays. This work here describes this plant, which operates automatically and which integrates all the elements, including the pre-existing ones, in a SCADA system. The parameters are remotely sent according to a TCP/IP protocol, enabling monitoring and control from any location where there is access to the Internet. The utilisation and the functioning of the ozone and ultraviolet radiation treatment plants for the swimming pools waters guarantee the compliance with the regulations and the measures relative to environment protection, which are regulated within the European Union.
Key words: swimming pool, ecological treatment, ozone, UV rays, SCADA system


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