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Numărul 14(1)/2017


Ecoterra, 2017, 14(1):1-9
Fuzzy Logic based method for air pollution assessment
O metoda bazata pe logica Fuzzy pentru evaluarea poluarii aerului

Ildiko Tulbure
University „1 Decembrie 1918”, Alba Iulia, Romania
Ildiko Tulbure
Clausthal University of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany
Ildiko Tulbure
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania

In order to quantify environmental impacts of economic activities, environmental indicators are necessary to be used. Debates on a global level regarding environmental pollution are nowadays connected to the concept of sustainable development. For its operationalization indicators for economic, environmental and social aspects have to be developed and used. In the present paper a possibility to define in a modular way an air pollution indicator is presented by considering the impact on health, impact on ecosphere as well as the emitted quantity of different air pollutants. An aggregation method based on fuzzy logic will be presented. The obtained results will be discussed and conclusions concerning the usage potential of the presented methodology will be drawn.

Ecoterra, 2017, 14(1):10-18
Simulation of an accidental pollution in a hydrosystem - Lower Danube case study
Simularea unei poluari accidentale a unui hidrosistem - studiu de caz Dunarea de Jos

Violeta-Monica Radu, Mihaela Andreea Moncea, Florina Diana Dumitru, Petra Ionescu, Ana-Maria Panait
National Institute for Research and Development in Environmental Protection, 294 Spl. Independentei, 6th District, 06003, Bucharest, Romania

Accidental pollution in a hydrosystem can cause widespread damages on the environment and could endanger public health, therefore the objective of this work was to simulate and anticipate a situation of accidental pollution, in time and space. Experimental data of the analyzed area (Borcea - Bala - Old Danube), for a period of 2 years included samples taken from the left bank, center and right bank. The nutrients from the water have been analyzed, their distribution and the advection and dispersion coefficients being represented. The numerical simulation has been performed, using the Delft3D software. For the monitored indicators, the distribution maps have shown similar behavior between the current situation and an accidental pollution regarding the pollutant dispersion. Accordingly, there are no abnormalities regarding the contamination areas at higher concentrations of the pollutants, however the remediation of the effects of an accidental pollution requires a long time and considerable financial support, therefore the prevention of these accidental pollutions becomes a necesity.

Ecoterra, 2017, 14(1):19-25
Evaluation of heavy metal contamination through indexes analysis. Case studies: Plumbuita and Circului Lakes, Bucharest (Romania)
Evaluarea contaminarii cu metale grele folosind indexul analitic: studii de caz - lacurile Plumbuita si Circului, Bucuresti (Romania)

Petra Ionescu, Ecaterina Marcu, Violeta-Monica Radu, Irina Elena Ciobotaru, Carmen Tociu
National Institute for Research and Development in Environmental Protection, 294 Spl. Independentei, 6th District, 06003, Bucharest, Romania

In the last years, the population growth and urbanization development together with the lack of adequate infrastructure development have raised serious questions regarding the release of various contaminants in the surface waters such as lakes. Among the contaminants present in the environment, heavy metals present a particular interest due to their toxic effects on human health.The objective of this work was to assess the water quality in relation to the heavy metal content (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and nikel) according to national regulation by using heavy metal pollution indices: Heavy metal Pollution Index (HPI) and Metal Index (MI) in two lakes located in Bucharest (Plumbuita Lake and  Circului Lake). To establish interdependencies between heavy metals analyzed and to identify the nature and potential sources of pollution, group Cluster Analysis has been applied. Evaluation of heavy metals in the lake water is of environmental and health concerns and needs attention.

Ecoterra, 2017, 14(1):26-32
The importance of the teaching of case studies of industrial accidents in the disaster management education
Importanta predarii studiilor de caz din accidente industriale in educatia pentru managementul dezastrelor

József Dobor
National University of Public Service, Institute of Disaster Management, Budapest, Hungary

The course acquaints students with knowledge of industrial safety. More specifically, incidents over the last decades relevant to industrial safety are covered. Finally, students are introduced to the possibilities of interventions and the importance of drills. More specifically, the effects of dangerous materials, the possibilities to reduce these effects and the instruments of response are covered. Finally, students are introduced to the possibilities of identification of dangerous materials. There are being taught more subjects related to chemistry on the National University of Public Service. The aim of this is to provide the special ability of those, who come out from the education. These subjects are connected to each other and built on each other and in this way they qualify the students for the skills they will use in the course of their later work. Although the chemistry-related subjects (for example case studies of industrial accidents) are not the most liked ones under the students, with some educational method their fear can be decreased. The aim of this article is to explain the lecture method in the disaster management education. The following aim of this article is to introduce an example of case studies of industrial accidents, and thus point out the importance of the subject.

Ecoterra, 2017, 14(1):33-39
An overview of disaster preparedness training in Hyungary, with special regard to public administration leaders
O privire de ansamblu asupra antrenamentului pregatitor pentru dezastre in Ungaria, cu referire speciala la liderii administratiei locale

József Ambrusz
National University of Public Service, Institute of Disaster Management, Budapest, Hungary

Security policy environment has changed in Hungary, together with security threats and challenges affecting our country. The involvement of the civilians in addition to the relevant organisations and authorities in the response to emergency situations and the following reconstruction is vital. Recent disasters and emergencies have shed light on the significance of preparedness and preventive measures in managing situations and minimising losses. Prevention is a priority area within disaster management, with special focus on one of its component, citizen preparedness. Mayors are in charge of complex, disaster management tasks, therefore their preparation requires increased responsibility and an interdisciplinary approach from the disaster management organisation.

Ecoterra, 2017, 14(1):40-46
Case study of “Hortobagy” and “Kunfeherto” fires, Hungary: disaster in costs of their elimination’s view
Studii de caz - incendiile “Hortobagy” si “Kunfeherto” din Ungaria, din punctul de vedere al costurilor

Bodnár László
National University of Public Service, Institute of Disaster Management, Budapest, Hungary

Day by day catastrophes gain bigger emphasis in our lives. The climate change affects not only Hungary and Europe, but every single country on Earth. By this time we can expect the constant raise of the average temperature, and this greatly increases the risk of wildfires. The author is analysing two wildfires happened in Hungary: “Hortobágy” fire and “Kunfeherto” fire. Article focuses on logistic problems in both fires. The topic highlights pointed also to the spread of wildfires connection to the costs required to suppress theme. Therefore this article reveals the importance of the defence against the wildfires. „Hortobágy” fire was suppressed by continuously raising resources in 3 steps, each of them was too late to be able to manage the exact situation.”Kunfeherto” fire was suppressed in 1 step with correctly time ordered resources. The size of the fires and the circumstances were more or less the same however the total costs of the extinguishing and the total damages caused by fire were significantly different. Research says that the alarm level for the required resources significantly determines both the damages caused by fire and the time of the intervention suppresses the fire.

Ecoterra, 2017, 14(1):47-51
Making body temperature lower to raise the safety level of firefighters’ intervention
Scaderea temperaturii corpului pentru cresterea nivelului de siguranta al pompierilor in timpul interventiilor la incendii

Anett Urban, Ágoston Restás
Institute of Disaster Management, National University of Public Service, Budapest, Hungary

Protection of the first responders has always been a highly important issue both in the past and nowadays. The different standardized protective equipment and several compulsory professional trainings try to improve the protection of our firefighters to a higher level. In spite of the continuous improvements, the thermoregulation system of the firefighters is strained by the high external temperature, furthermore it increases the use of the circulatory system, the water and sodium balance in the body that they need to work in full-body covering clothes. We need to know that the heat can cause not only significant wellbeing and performance decrease but also heat slump, heatrun-down, heat stroke, and the decrease of the ability of concentration can easily contribute to dangerous, even life-threatening situations. In some cases this can even be fatal for the firefighters. In addition to reviewing literature related to the above topics, the goal of the authors is to research and present the equipment and possibilities that can help lowering the body temperature of the firefighters in order to reach better performance during the interventions. Use of equipment lowering body temperature allows the decrease of heat strain caused by the environment and the personal protective clothing in case of fire, accidents involving transportation of dangerous goods or forest fires which can be a prolonged intervention.

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