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Ecoterra, 2016, 13(4):1-12
Experimental determination of explosion characteristics for aluminum powder derived from technological processes
Determinari experimentale ale caracteristicilor exploziilor pulberii de aluminiu rezultate din procese tehnologice

Irina Nălboc, Constantin Lupu, Maria Prodan, Andrei Szolloşi-Moţa, Adrian Jurca
National Institute for Research and Development in Mine Safety and Protection to Explosion – INSEMEX Petroşani, Romania

Flammable gases or vapors - air mixtures generally tend to occupy the entire available volume being quasi stable systems. In contrast, the suspension of dust in air is a heterogenous unstable system, wherein the dust solid particles are deposited in time, depending on their weight. The explosive behavior which is represented by a mixture of air and flammable substances is influenced by many factors of which the most important parameters are the chemical composition and concentration of flammable and explosive mixture with air. In particular, for the combustible powders, additional factors are intervening, related to the physico-chemical properties of combustible solids, the shape and size of dust particles, as well as the environmental conditions under which dust exist in suspension. For this work were performed experimental determination of the explosion and combustible parameters specific for aluminum powder derived from technological processes, as waste, being analyzed both influence of particle size and contribution of inert substances.

Ecoterra, 2016, 13(4):13-18
Chromium: toxicity and tolerance in plants. A review
Cromul: toxicitatea si toleranta la plante. O sinteza

Sebastian Plugaru, Mihaela Orban
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering and Entrepreneurship of Sustainable Development, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Anca Sarb
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Machine Building, Department of Engineering Design and Robotics, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Tiberiu Rusu
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering and Entrepreneurship of Sustainable Development, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

The metals that have a greater density than 5 g cm-3 are called heavy metals. These heavy metals sum up 53 of the total 90 elements that occur naturally. Of these 53 heavy metals, 17 are significant to the plants and animals from various ecosystems and are available for living cells from the solubility in physiological conditions’ point of view. Moreover, there are only a few heavy metals that are non-toxic at low concentrations: Zn, Ni, Cu, V, Co, W and Cr. In photosynthetic organisms, heavy metals with stress effect result in the modification of some of these organisms’ characteristics as: plasma membrane damages, formation of oxygen radicals, appearance of free metal ions in cytosol, disorders of nutrient uptake, water balance and photosynthesis, limited growth, reduced production of flowers and seeds. Direct and indirect effects are produced by these types of modifications.

Ecoterra,, 2016, 13(4):19-25
Focusing on the problems of extinguishing large scale storage fires
Despre extinctia incendiilor in cazul depozitelor de mari dimensiuni

Sandor Racz
National University of Public Service, Budapest, Hungary

One of the most important components of the effectiveness of the intervention is alarm level designation, and then its classification on the fire ground. It is especially vital in the case of fires in large-sized buildings, as the right number of intervention units has a crucial role in fire suppression. Author studied the problems of large scale storage fires that happened recently in Hungary. Based on the problems of fire suppressions a theoretical approach was made for measuring the rate between the extinguished 3D surface, the size of the stored material and the floor space of the storage. Even at the initial stage of the intervention, the incident commander has to tackle with several urgent tasks. Alarm level takes on a crucial role here, because he is in charge of evaluating the situation and deciding on the need for additional units. The paper provides help to make decisions on what extinguishing intensity is required by the hot zone as well as the by the vulnerable zone.

Ecoterra, 2016, 13(4):26-45
A short comparative review of commercial technologies for lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis in Europe
Scurta sinteza comparativa asupra tehnologiilor comerciale privitoare la piroliza biomasei ligno-celulozice in Europa

Cristina Şerbănescu, Aurelia-Mihaela Oprescu
IPROCHIM S. A., Bucharest, Romania

Pyrolysis represents an important waste to energy (WtE) thermal method. It has been investigated all over the world especially for economic production of alternative liquid fuels. Lignocellulosic biomass, especially wood, has been widely studied and used at laboratory, pilot or commercial scale due to the ease of comparability between results. Moreover, the concern of converting wood into liquid fuel is a priority for many countries since the first oil crisis in 1973 and the subsequent events of oil price increase in 1990 and energy crisis in 2000s. Generally, two main commercially available lignocellulosic biomass technologies exist depending on the final product envisaged: “slow pyrolysis” for bio-char production and “fast pyrolysis” for bio-oil production. For each of them, dedicated reactor types exist. The European commercial technologies and plants for lignocelluloisc biomass are surveyed. Several aspects are summarized: main commercial technologies with corresponding reactor types; product yields and operating conditions; technical-economic aspects; pyrolysis oil characteristics, upgrade and uses; bio-char characteristics and uses. A comparison is made in terms of technico-economic and financial aspects.

Ecoterra, 2016, 13(4):46-51
Environmental risks related to the presence of the CRT glass in the non-compliance municipal solid waste landfill
Riscuri de mediu asociate cu prezenta sticlei CRT in depozitele municipale de deseuri neconforme

Irina Smical
Faculty of Engineering, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, North University Centre of Baia Mare, Baia Mare, Romania
Adriana Muntean
Maramureş Water Management System, Someş-Tisa Basinal Water Administration, Baia Mare, Romania
Zoltan Török
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Babeş-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Elena Pop
Faculty of Engineering, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, North University Centre of Baia Mare, Baia Mare, Romania

The presence of CRT glass in the non-compliance municipal solid waste landfill poses a risk for the quality of environmental factors. By leaching, the heavy metal ions contained therein hazardous waste, end up in groundwater or surface waters. The results presented in the paper reveals the way in which some heavy metals contained in CRT glass pass in the liquid medium. Thus, the conditions of reactivity of the CRT glass into three areas: an acid medium (pH = 4), one represented by rain water (pH = 5.63) and an alkaline one (pH = 8) were simulated. The results revealed the high leachability of the lead ions in acid medium where they exceeded the maximum allowable value (MAV) by 4.8 times and also in the media of rain water where they exceeded the MAV by 4.65 times. Lower lead concentrations were determined for the alkaline medium where it exceeded the MAV by 2.7 times. For other investigated heavy metal ions no MAV exceeding values were identified for groundwater.

Ecoterra, 2016, 13(4):52-60
An investigation on the smoke pollution issued by the turbofan engines
O investigatie cu privire la poluarea cu fum cauzata de motoare turbo

Sebastian M. Zaharia
Faculty of Technological Engineering and Industrial Management, Transilvania University of Brasov, Brasov, Romania

Aggressiveness on the environment is no longer a problem to be left to nature. Manufacturing propulsion systems that are quieter and have lower levels of pollutant emissions is the main direction to which aviation engine manufacturers are heading. The need to solve chemical pollution of aircraft has become a serious problem in recent years, along with the increase of air pollution with pollutants, especially in large urban areas. In this paper it was carried out a statistical analysis of the data simulated by Monte Carlo method regarding the smoke emissions of an aircraft’s turbofan engine. In the case study were simulated values of smoke number for a turbofan engine at take-off and landing regime.

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