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Ecoterra, 2017, 14(3):1-7
Assessing the preservation state of a Romanian historic concrete icon – the Constanta Casino
Evaluarea starii de prezervare a unui ansamblu istoric reprezentativ construit din ciment din Romania - Cazinoul din Constanta

Florina-Diana Dumitru, Ana-Maria Panait, Marius-Viorel Olteanu, Elena Holban, György Deák
National Institute for Research and Development in Environmenal Protection, Bucharest, Romania
Robert Szép
University Sapientia, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania
Ágnes Keresztesi
Babeș-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Assessing the corrosion condition and structural modifications which occur in old concrete structures could provide valuable information regarding the preservation state of the historical construction as well as the needed support for future maintenance works in order to minimize as much as possible the loss of these structures with important historical value. This paper discusses the compositional modifications which occur in an old concrete in correlation with the particularities of the exploitation environment. This investigation could provide the support for the initiation of a monitoring program related to the assessment of concrete structures damage and implementation of minimum maintenance measures. The investigation methods were scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses.

Ecoterra, 2017, 14(3):8-16
Potential space activities share in achieving global sustainability
Potentialul de integrare a activitatilor spatiale in cadrul durabilitatii globale

Dumitru-Dorin Prunariu
Romanian Space Agency, Bucharest, Romania

Ildiko Tulbure
University „1 Decembrie 1918”, Alba Iulia, Romania

The desire of humanity to grow its quality of life was in the past guaranted by the steady technological progress. More recent developments have however pointed out that beside wanted effects of technological progress, negative impacts can also appear. As a possible solution for the recognised complex global problems the concept of Sustainable Development has been defined in 1987 in the Brundtland Report. Taking into account the mobility field, the current vision is to shape sustainable mobility. In this regard evaluating technologies is becoming very necessary and for this goal Technology Assessment can be applied. By making assessments of different technologies an answer is actually searched to the question of how do technologies integrate into environment and society? In this regard specific evaluation criteria are considered in sustainability decision-making processes also concerning Space Activities. Applying Space Activities for getting Sustainable Development means among other things setting up Emergency Programs in order to support disaster response operations through the provision of satellite data. In this context the United Nations Platform for Space-based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response (UN-SPIDER) is to be mentioned, being implemented in order to support disaster management activities. The vision is to implement this program in the future on a global level, supporting in this way the usage of Space Activities for achieving global sustainability, where systemic thinking is per se required.

Ecoterra, 2017, 14(3):17-27
Disaster risk reduction curricula in primary and secondary schools across the European Union: a review
Curriculum pentru reducerea riscului la dezastre in ciclul scolar primar si gimnazial in Uniunea Europeana - o sinteza

Monika Meltzer, Lucrina Ştefănescu
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Research Institute for Sustainability and Disaster Management based on High Performance Computing – ISUMADECIP, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Alen Djonko
Federal Office of Civil Protection and Disaster Assistance, Provinzialstr. 93, 53127 Bonn, Germany
Ildiko Melinda Martonos, Nicoleta Bican-Brişan, Alexandru Ozunu
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Research Institute for Sustainability and Disaster Management based on High Performance Computing – ISUMADECIP, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the disaster risk reduction (DRR) curricula at primary and secondary schools in the European Union (EU) member states. This overview deploys a two-step approach: (1) a rapid review of 20 curriculum indicators from the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) progress reports to identify trends and limitations of the DRR education across the EU, and (2) an overview of national curricula and other relevant resources to understand the educational process and the development of DRR skills in different European educational settings. Thematic analysis was used to conduct an overview of formal primary and secondary curricula in relation to DRR. The study revealed a wide variety of creative and efficient approaches to implement DRR into the school curricula, and, hence, a lack of standardized approaches. While in some member states, teaching focuses on disseminating safety knowledge, in others, teaching highlights the mechanisms behind disasters. Due to the great diversity regarding structure and content of the examined materials, a systematic review was not possible. Therefore, an overview was considered the most appropriate choice. The results of this study might contribute to a better understanding of the gaps and limitations in developing formal curricula in the EU member states.

Ecoterra, 2017, 14(3):28-32
Lăpuș Basin - weakness and decrepitude
Bazinul Lapusului - slabiciune si decadere

Marta Moldoveanu
Doctoral School of Geography, Babeș-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

The environment is the most precious gift that we received and of which it is necessary to take care of, in an unconditionally way. 'Water is Life' has become a cliché and the term is well-known as a doctrine that everybody should believe in, to act not only for self-benefit, but also for the environment’s benefit. The hydrographic network is the base of an ecosystem, and through this, we can also identify the areas with high economic and ecological potential, in order to be surely protected. The biggest environmental problems of the rivers, which are situated near by the abandoned mines and more precisely, the Lăpuș River, are the acid mine drainage and the uncontrolled mining waste, occurred after the communist period. Is also the case of the Lăpuș River, where the locals are confronted with these problems, to which no one has a solution. No longer having mine exploitations, the mines were left in ruins and no one has ever controlled their actions. Nevertheless, they continued to produce polluted water, with heavy metals and toxic substances harming, directly or indirectly, the people lives. Accidental pollution of mine waters, have devastating primarily effects in fish fauna and beyond. Heavy rain engages mine water from the ponds, waters which are known as waters with loads of hazardous substances. The route of these waters with loads of hazardous substances is flowing in the Lăpuș river, harming the fish fauna and then is being absorbed by the earth which is taken up by the plants that people consume.

Ecoterra, 2017, 14(3):33-39
Environmental footprint of using renewable energies
Amprenta de mediu prin utilizarea energiilor regenerabile

Andrada Oancea, Ildiko Tulbure
University „1 Decembrie 1918”, Alba Iulia, Romania

Daily human activities have beside desired effects on the quality of life of human beings, also unwanted ones, especially regarding environmental pollution. Pollutants emissions are rapidly increasing, especially the emissions of carbon dioxide. The major part of the needed energy in human daily life is currently obtained on the basis of burning fossil fuels. Because of the pretty short life time of fossil fuels, governments are currently keen to move to using renewable energies. On the other side, as industrial activities are steadily developing, the concern over their potential negative environmental impacts is growing too. Environmental impact assessments are carried out by using several tools. A currently pretty used one is connected to the environmental footprint account of different products or processes. It actually measures the pollutants emissions because of resources demand in the context of diverse production or consumption processes. Although renewable energy provides substantial benefits for our climate, health and economy, it is important to evaluate the environmental impact of the corresponding technologies connected to their usage. In this context, the environmental footprint of using renewable energies is debated by calculating the corresponding CO2 emissions. Decreasing possible environmental impact of using renewable energies, technical but especially organizational measures are required.

Ecoterra, 2017, 14(3):40-43
Modificational variability and physiological foundation of herbaceous plants corolla colouring in Central Europe
Variabilitatea fluctuanta si fundamentul fiziologic al coloratiei corolei plantelor erbacee in Europa Centrala

Irina Kolomiets, Nikolay Platovsky
Institute of Ecology and Geography, Academy of Sciences of Republic of Moldova, Chişinău, Republic of Moldova

Corolla colouring modificational variability of 272 herbaceous plants species of Central Europe has been studied basing on Ellenberg ecological scales. It was found that the corolla colouring of 209 species out of 272 varied. The moisture regime was observed to change one position of the corolla colouring. The temperature regime changed the colouring within three positions.

Ecoterra, 2017, 14(3):44-52
Economic aspects of disaster management focusing on firefighting equipment
Aspectele economice ale managementului dezastrelor, cu trimitere la echipamentul pentru stingerea incendiilor

Gabor Halassy
National University of Public Service, Doctoral School of Military Science, Budapest, Hungary
Agoston Restas
National University of Public Service, Department of Fire Prevention and Rescue Control, Institute of Disaster Management, Budapest, Hungary

To maintain the fire department, it needs significant state budget expenditure but against the above it is still enjoying a high degree of confidence of the majority of the population. It is therefore particularly important to pursue an effective professional firefighting work and cost effective management. Authors reviewed the little professional literature available of this topic, used theoretical approaches, logic conclusions and - naturally - practical experiences of firefighting with its caused effects. Generally, efficiency is the relationship between achieved results during a certain activity, as well as the resources used to achieve them. How do we understand it in the firefighter actions? For technical (firefighting) efficiency clear values can be calculated (e.g. by duration of firefighting, used power and devices). The analysis of the economic efficiency is a more difficult task. On the resources side is required more precise definition of the total cost of used powers and tools; however the achieved results (saved values), are often difficult to be calculated (e.g. vegetation fires) and in some cases the result of the action - human life, monuments, natural habitats - cannot be expressed by monetary terms. The determination of measuring economic efficiency and ranking firefighting techniques may help to make procurement and cost-effective operation decisions.

Ecoterra, 2017, 14(3):53-58
Resuscitation procedure for fire fighters in case of emergency
Proceduri de resuscitare a pompierilor in caz de urgenta

Gyorgy Kos
National University of Public Service, Doctoral School of Military Science, Budapest, Hungary

In the rescue in emergency situations the humans in distress are always to be focused on and very little attention is paid to rescuers in extreme conditions. The extreme conditions can cause extreme pressure, which can get them into trouble, and in the last resort it can risk their lives. The article focuses on the possibilities of reanimation protocols for firefighters who are exposed to these types of circumstances. During the intervention, beside the suffocation the most common cause of death for firefighters is a cardiac arrest. High-quality complete cardio-pulmonary resuscitation at the right time is crucial not only to survive, but to avoid the later complications. Because of the special environments of fire ground and the heavy and tightly fixed gears of the firefighters we need markedly different procedures of the civil practice for a successful rescue. The author gives examples of these.

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