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Ecoterra, 2016, 13(2):1-8
Food waste management - a cheap source of lactic acid produced by Lactobacillus sp.
Managementul resturilor alimentare - o sursa ieftina de producere a acidului lactic de catre Lactobacillus sp.

Arun Karnwal, Shilpa Sharma, Aradhana Dohroo
Bhojia Institute of Life Sciences, Bhud (Baddi), District Solan, H.P. 173205, India

The most common and important chemical compound used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, chemical and food industry is lactic acid. There have been various attempts made to produce lactic acid efficiently from inexpensive raw materials. The main objective of present study was to produce lactic acid from cheap food waste such as potato peels, orange peels and mango peels as substrate. A total of 35 isolates were screened for Lactobacillus spp. On the basis of temperature and pH optimization, 4 bacterial isolates (5SA, 21SA, 22SA, 32SA) were selected for further study and fermentation. The highest lactic acid production, 12.23 g L-1 was obtained for mango peels where as for orange peels it was 11.98 g L-1 for 21SA isolate. Isolates 5SA and 22SA produced 13.08 g L-1 and 12.54 g L-1, respectively, lactic acid for potato peels at the 3rd of fermentation. For mixed peel waste, 32SA isolate was able to produce maximum 11.56 g L-1 lactic acid after fermentation at the end of 3rd day. Thus it shown that lactic acid can be efficiently produced from food wastes at a cheaper cost and high rate. 

Ecoterra, 2016, 13(2):9-18
Atmosphere pollution caused by traffic and the necessity to adapt to effects of climate change. A case study for Bucharest
Poluarea atmosferica cauzata de traficul urban si necesitatea adaptarii la efectele schimbarii climatice. Studiu de caz pentru Bucuresti

Florinela Ardelean, Lidia Niculita
Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest, Faculty of Engineering Installations, Bucharest, Romania

In the last couple of years, the quality of urban and periurban environment has suffered changes, being constantly influenced by a series of factors like: increasingly heavier traffic, sound pollution, certain activities that have an impact on the atmosphere. Road transport contributes to photochemical smog, acid rain, as well as accentuates the greenhouse effect (global warming). In this context, the present paper represents a part of the results obtained following a documentary and experimental study undergone in interior and periurban areas of Bucharest municipality, regarding tropospheric response times to increasingly anthropic pressure caused by vehicle transport activities, by correlating measurements results of nitrous oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions with those of simultaneous traffic monitoring. A representative case study is presented for downtown Bucharest. Also, an analysis is presented regarding meteorological parameters variation (annual average temperature and total rainfall) for downtown and periurban areas in Bucharest metropolis. The obtained results have highlighted the fact that road traffic is the main source of pollution in Bucharest and it has an important contribution to increasing climate change.

Ecoterraa, 2016, 13(2):19-25
Considerations upon degradability of waste and its impact on the environment
Consideratii asupra degradarii deseurilor si impactul asupra mediului

Izabella Corabian, Vasile F. Soporan
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

This paper develops an instrument to analyze and optimize the waste disposal processes by substantiating the extension of the concept of waste degradation. This applies to municipal waste by analyzing the following: natural degradation, controlled natural degradation, artificial degradation through exploitation of material potential, artificial degradation through exploitation of energetic potential. One of the current priorities for the reduction of environmental pollution is taken into consideration by assessing the environmental impact globally, regionally and locally. Also, assessing the efficiency is achieved by the recovered value of the material and energetic potential.

Ecoterra, 2016, 13(2):26-32
Internationalism in disaster management and its foreign language requirements
Internationalismul in managementul dezastrelor si necesitatea cunoasterii de limbi straine

Enikő Kuk, Rezső Pellérdi
Institute of Disaster Management, National University of Public Service, Budapest, Hungary

Disaster management is a rather complex and integrated activity, in which multiple international dimensions can be observed. At each stage of the activities, namely during prevention, response and recovery, cooperation with other states or international organisations is justified. Recognising its importance, organisations for disaster management both in Hungary and Romania have built up an extensive system of international professional relations and actively participate on the international stage. One of its practical conditions is the knowledge of a common language, most typically English, including general as well as specialised language. This article reviews the activities of disaster management reaching across the border and the major international platforms of cooperation with special emphasis on the professional relations between Hungary and Romania. Furthermore, the authors elaborate on the conditions of successful cooperation, focusing on the foreign language requirements on the personnel of the professional disaster management organisation and makes recommendations on its improvement. The majority of countries strive to form and maintain professional relations with other countries and international organisations to join their efforts and increase effectiveness. The knowledge of specialised English for disaster management is a means to facilitate sharing best practices, experience and information that can contribute to this purpose.

Ecoterra, 2016, 13(2):33-35
Voluntary disaster management organizations in higher education
Organizatiile de voluntari in managementul dezastrelor in invatamantul superior

Gotthilf Schweickhardt
Institute of Disaster Management, Budapest, Hungary

In addition to the relevant organisations, the involvement of the civilian population is also necessary in the protection against natural and man-made disasters. Socialisation of the protection against disasters requires not only the population but also other groups such as higher education students. Higher education students attend BA or MA courses related to the given profession. These courses lay down the basics of the students’ professional knowledge, which may be supplemented with special knowledge specific to a certain field when students join volunteer disaster management organisations. Volunteer activities that students take on during their higher education studies provide a good basis for subsequent involvement in residential and workplace organisations for civil protection. This paper elaborates on this topic, taking into account the UN INSARAG guidelines as well as the relevant regulations on the European Union’s civil protection mechanism.

Ecoterra, 2016, 13(2):36-42
Disaster management at special cases like delay in starting intervention fire management in prisons in Hungary
Managementul dezastrelor in cazuri speciale cum sunt intarzierile in managementul incendiilor in inchisori din Ungaria

Peter Horvath, Agoston Restas
University of Budapest, Institute of Disaster Management, Budapest, Hungary

In Hungary fire-fighting duties are generally fulfilled by fire services operating within the framework of the unified organization of disaster management. To increase efficiency this might change in specific cases, furthermore other organisations can also fulfil fire-fighting duties. The reason behind this is that sometimes firefighters arrive at the scene with a considerable delay therefore people located in the area have to start fire-fighting with the utilization of special equipment to minimize damage. Such occasions are when disasters or fires are to be managed during mass events, affrays or inside prisons. The author applied the current legislation of Hungary, interviewed some of the managers working in the Prison Service as well as utilized his previous experience in fire-fighting. The author describes the current state of the Hungarian prisons, depicts the characteristics and the current changes of the fire safety training received by the prison personnel. The author shows examples regarding cases where the arrival of firefighters cannot be achieved under the professionally accepted time limit of 15 minutes. A cell fire with a fatal outcome is also described in the paper. The complicated situation faced by the prison personnel in case of fire is also addressed. The author tries to assist in the improvement of the educational syllabus as well as in the perfecting of the knowledge of the personnel.

Ecoterra, 2016, 13(2):43-51
Sustainability of steel corrosion protection by hot dip galvanizing
Durabilitatea in cazul protectiei anticoroziune a otelului prin galvanizare la temperaturi inalte

Horațiu Vermeşan, Ancuța Tiuc
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Vasile Rus
S.C. BETAK S.A., Cluj-Napoca, Romania

It becomes more obvious nowadays that in order to sustain a long-term economic development, a solution is to lower the maintenance and repair costs. For the iron and steel industry, this means to apply protection systems with longer durability. Technologies of the future are based on the best available techniques, which mean low energy and materials consumption and low or no waste. Hot dip galvanizing is such a technology that is adequate for recycling, allowing a reduced energy and materials consumption. Also, an economic approach and analysis of the hot dip galvanizing in the frame of the sustainable development is shown, analysis made in the frame of the European General Galvanizers Association (EGGA). This work comprises results and discussions regarding the industrial, economic and environment protection importance and advantages of the hot dip galvanizing applied in constructions. By using the “whole-life cost” method, it was observed that the metal structures are the most rentable choice on long term, and their hot dip galvanization corrosion protection system is the most effective choice from all points of view. Hot dip galvanizing ensures the environment and natural resources efficient protection. Thus, it brings an important contribution to the sustainable development.

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