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PRIMA PAGINĂ ECOTERRA NUMĂRUL 10(36)/2013


Ecoterra, no. 36, pp. 1-8, 2013
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE EVOLUTION SLUDGE LEVEL, VOLUME AND CONCENTRATION IN A TANK MIXTURE TO A WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT
SIMULAREA NUMERICă A EVOLUţIEI NIVELULUI, VOLUMULUI şI CONCENTRAţIEI DE NăMOL îNTR-UN BAZIN DE AMESTEC LA O STAţIE DE EPURARE

Petrică D. Toma
S.C. Apa Nova Bucureşti S.A.

In this paper is presented a wastewater treatment pathway of and the mathematical model of the evolution of the level, volume and concentration of sludge in a tank mixture at a water wastewater treatment plant. The mathematical model was developed using the program developed by the author of this article in Scilab-Xcos. Also, the paper presents a simulation example.


Ecoterra, no. 36, pp. 9-16, 2013
THE MINERAL WATERS FROM THE EASTERN CARPATHIANS: A HISTORICAL AND CHEMICAL OVERVIEW
APELE MINERALE DI CARPATII DE EST: RETROSPECTIVA ISTORICA SI CHIMICA

Boglárka-Mercedesz Kis, Călin Baciu
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, University Babeş-Bolyai Cluj-Napoca, Romania

The Eastern Carpathians are renowned for their mineral water resources, exploited since historical times for their therapeutic value. This paper summarizes the present state of knowledge on the chemical type of mineral waters from the point of view of dissolved constituents and associated gases, such as CO2, CH4 or H2S. The chemistry of mineral waters is highly influenced by the type of rocks they are leaching. Considering this aspect the mineral waters from the Eastern Carpathians are mainly influenced by the Neogene to Quaternary volcanic rocks of the Călimani-Gurghiu-Harghita Mountains, the sedimentary deposits of the Transylvanian Basin and the flysch deposits of the Carpathian arc. Four major chemical types were defined: sparkling, CO2-rich waters, NaCl-rich waters, sulfate or H2S-rich waters and geothermal waters. The overlapping chemical features give birth to the mixed type of waters found in the southern part of the Eastern Carpathians.


Ecoterra, no. 36, pp. 17-21, 2013
A SHORT DESCRIPTION OF SOME RADON CONCENTRATION REMEDIATION METHODS IMPLEMENTED IN 20 HOUSES FROM MINING AREA BăIţA-BIHOR (ROMANIA)
SCURTă DESCRIERE A METODELOR DE REMEDIERE A CONCENTRAţIILOR DE RADON IMPLEMENTATE îN 20 DE CASE DIN ZONA MINIERă BăIţA-BIHOR (ROMâNIA)

Alexandra Cucoş (Dinu), Constantin Cosma, Oana Alexandra Dumitru
Centrul de Cercetare de Radioactivitate a Mediului şi Datare Nucleară “Babeş-Bolyai”, Cluj-Napoca, România
Tiberius Dicu
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai, Facultatea de Ştiinţa şi Ingineria Mediului, Cluj-Napoca, România
Bottond Papp, Dan Constantin Niţă
Centrul de Cercetare de Radioactivitate a Mediului şi Datare Nucleară “Babeş-Bolyai”, Cluj-Napoca, România
Robert Begy, Mircea Moldovan
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai, Facultatea de Ştiinţa şi Ingineria Mediului, Cluj-Napoca, România
Bety Burghele
Centrul de Cercetare de Radioactivitate a Mediului şi Datare Nucleară “Babeş-Bolyai”, Cluj-Napoca, România
Carlos Sainz
Facultatea de Medicină, Universitatea Cantabria, Santander, Spania
Liviu Suciu
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A., Bistriţa-Năsăud, Romania

In the present paper we describe the methods for remediation of radon concentrations, methods which were implemented in the vicinity of uranium mine "Avram Iancu" from Băiţa-Bihor (Romania). This study was made within the project POSCCE 586-12487 IRART concerning the development and the application of some effective solutions in order to prevent the population exposure to radon. We have implemented these methods in 20 affected households from the investigated area, with minimum costs.


Ecoterra, no. 36, pp. 22-31, 2013
STUDY ON LANDSCAPE REDEVELOPMENT IN THE EASTERN POST-INDUSTRIAL AREA OF CLUJ-NAPOCA
STUDII ASUPRA REDEZVOLTARII PEISAJULUI IN ZONA POST-INDUSTRIALA DIN ESTUL MUNICIPIULUI CLUJ-NAPOCA

Melania-Nicoleta Boroş, Valer Micle
Tehnical University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

The industrial areas placed in urban spaces had suffered many changes over time due to the changing of technology and also because of the modification of the market demands which meant the transfer from production to services. In many cases, what were left behind were large spaces with their local identity profile lost, some of them abandoned today. The reorganization of the destroyed and polluted sites is part of a process of urban development which purpose is to create a superior living environment. The present study aims to identify an unaesthetic area from the eastern industrial zone of Cluj-Napoca and bring more value to it by understanding the characteristics of the urban configuration and by increasing the social and urban quality. The landscape design proposals were made based on the existing situation analysis and they intend to grow the attractiveness, the value and improve the urban climate. More green spaces create a pleasing ambient for the employees and visitors. The completed project could be considered a local model worth following.


Ecoterra, no. 36, pp. 32-36, 2013
THE EVALUATION OF LUNG CANCER DEATHS DUE TO INDOOR RADON EXPOSURE IN FOUR COUNTIES FROM ROMANIA
EVALUAREA NUMăRULUI DE DECESE DE CANCER PULMONAR ATRIBUIBILE RADONULUI REZIDENţIAL îN PATRU JUDEţE DIN ROMâNIA

Tiberius Dicu, Paula Astaluş
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai, Facultatea de Ştiinţa şi Ingineria Mediului, Cluj-Napoca, România
Constantin Cosma, Alexandra Cucoş (Dinu), Oana Alexandra Dumitru, Botond Papp
Centrul de Cercetare de Radioactivitate a Mediului şi Datare Nucleară “Babeş-Bolyai”, Cluj-Napoca, România
1Mircea Moldovan, Robert Begy
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai, Facultatea de Ştiinţa şi Ingineria Mediului, Cluj-Napoca, România
Carlos Sainz
Facultatea de Medicină, Universitatea Cantabria, Santander, Spania

The aim of this study was to assess the number of lung cancer deaths due to indoor radon exposure. Indoor radon measurements have been carried out in 4 Romanian counties (Bihor, Bistriţa-Năsăud, Cluj and Maramureş) using CR-39 detectors. The results indicate that between 17-35% of lung cancers can be attributable to indoor radon exposure, between 85-89% of lung cancer deaths attributed to radon occurring on male current smokers and between 75-100% on female current smokers.


Ecoterra, no. 36, pp. 37-40, 2013
RECOVERY OF SECONDARY ENERGY RESOURCES WITH LOWER THERMAL POTENTIAL
VALORIFICAREA RESURSELOR ENERGETICE SECUNDARE DE POTENţIAL TERMIC REDUS

Gabriela L. Deac, Tiberiu Rusu, Cristina D. Horju-Deac
Universitatea Tehnică din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ingineria Materialelor şi a Mediului,Departamentul de Ingineria Mediului şi Antreprenoriatul Dezvoltării Durabile, Cluj-Napoca, România

Recovery of the secondary energy resources with lower thermal potential in industry, such as the steam used, the condens, the industrial wastewater or cooling water resulting from cooling processes of different technological that aggregates with the potential heat factor t in between 50 and 150oC, represents an intense concern of the countries industrially developed. The industrial factories should invest not only in the developing of the production processes, but also in the energy efficiency of these processes starting with the capitalization of the secondary energy resources with lower heat potential,these opportunities not being explored by now. The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technology is an unconventional technology which allows efficient conversion of the lower thermal potential of the heat sources into electricity and has the advantage of complete elimination of CO2 emissions. The ORC units have increased efficiency, reliability and modular layout which allow the production of power energy at small scale. The global evolution of the ORC market units at this moment knows an exponential development: in 2004 there were about 50 ORC functional units, and in 2012 there were nearly 600 operating units totaling an installed capacity of 2,000 MW.


Ecoterra, no. 36, pp. 41-46, 2013
ITALIAN FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN ENVIRONMENT OR RELATED FIELDS. CASE STUDY: CLUJ COUNTY
INVESTITII ITALIENE IN MEDIU SI ARII INRUDITE. STUDIU DE CAZ: JUDETUL CLUJ

Iulia-Maria Rusu
Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University Babeş-Bolyai Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Daniela Ciorbă
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, University Babeş-Bolyai Cluj-Napoca, Romania

This article identifies and presents the main Italian investors in the Cluj county, when considering the environment or the related fields. The main problem faced being the correct delimitation in base of the companies’ CAEN. Also, through this article we try to underline the possibilities one company have when starting to invest in renewable energy or generally, green energy and the motives/benefits for both sides when doing so. Besides, organism like Confindustria Romania or The Court of Commercial Arbitration are stated for the importance of their roles or functions.


Ecoterra, no. 36, pp. 47-52, 2013
RECYCLING OF ALUMINIUM COMPONENTS FROM END OF LIFE VEHICLES
RECICLAREA COMPONENTELOR DIN ALUMINIU DIN VEHICULE SCOASE DIN UZ

Nicoleta-I. Pipaş, Emilian-N. Riţi-Mihoc, Elena M. Pică, Viorel Dan
Universitatea Tehnică din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ingineria Materialelor şi a Mediului, Cluj-Napoca, România

In this paper are shown, both European-level rules and establishing national measures aimed at the re-use, recycling and other forms of recovery of components made of aluminum of disused vehicles. There are also presented in a general way the techniques used for the recycling of aluminium components of disused vehicles are considering reducing the amount of such waste and improve efficiency with respect for the environment, the economic operators involved in the life cycle of vehicles and techniques that intervene directly in vehicles treatment. The 6.2% content of aluminium components corresponds to 51.4 kg mass of end-of life vehicle.


Ecoterra, no. 36, pp. 53-62, 2013
THE STUDY OF THE POLLUTION LEVEL OF THE RIVERS IN COVASNA COUNTY DURING 2011-2012
STUDIUL NIVELULUI DE POLUARE A RâURILOR DIN JUDEţUL COVASNA îN PERIOADA 2011-2012

Ildikó Bartalis
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa şi Ingineria Mediului, Extensia Sfântu Gheorghe, România
Sándor S. Barabási, Noémi Antal
Autoritatea Naţională Sanitară Veterinară şi pentru Siguranţa Alimentelor Covasna, România
Mónika Sándor
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai, Facultatea de Chimie şi Inginerie Chimică, Cluj-Napoca, România

Studying the parts of Olt River and related basins with its tributaries, which are 100 km long areas situated in Covasna county, represents a great importance. Taking into account the River Basin Management Plans of the Olt River and the Local Environmental Protection Action Plans of Covasna County, appropriate investigations are carried out on the physico-chemical pollution of rivers in Covasna. In the period of 2011-2012 a total number of 152 water samples from the main rivers of the county were analyzed. Thus, two water samples were collected in quarter from Olt River, Black River, Cormoş River and their tributaries. Based on our investigations, critical areas for surface water pollution are normally missing in the Covasna County. But it can be noticed that problems are established during the floods, when due to precipitation and concentration leakage at microbasin, a large amounts of waste and substances resulting from the degradation of organic substances or as a consequence of crop treatments with chemical and natural fertilizers, were carrying by displacement of water.


Ecoterra, no. 36, pp. 63-71, 2013
PRELIMINARY STUDY ABOUT MINERALOGICAL RESOURCES OF IRON ORE IN KIRUNAVAARA IN THE CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF METALLURGICAL INDUSTRY
STUDIU PRELIMINAR ASUPRA ZACAMINTELOR DE FIER DIN KIRUNAVAARA, IN CONTEXTUL DEZVOLTARII DURABILE A INDUSTRIEI METALURGICE

Dan Constantinescu, Adriana B. Cârlan
University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Material’s Engineering and Science, Bucharest, Romania

The article is focused on the study of the mineralogical resources and particularities of the iron ore from Kirunavaara, Sweden, in connection with pellets making and steel making technologies. Having in view the actual trend for the use and the management of the non-renewable resources it is proposed a study about the impact of the iron ore exploitation and manufacturing on the sustainable development in the field of the metallurgical industry. The objectives of the paper include the following activities: analyse of the situation on the field in Malmberget and Kirunavaara, a study of the mineral resources including the basic and auxiliary composition of the ore, a study about the properties and geo-economical particularities in Malmberget and Kirunavaara in the conditions of sustainable development and the impact on the steel quality. An important aspect will refer to the history and the general characterisation of deposits from Malmberget and Kirunavaara having in view the final goal of the researches about the mineralogical particle, ore pellets making, and agglomerating methods.


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