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PRIMA PAGINĂ ECOTERRA NUMĂRUL 11(1)/2014


Ecoterra, 2014, 11(1):1-7
INFLUENCE OF MULTILAYER PHOTOSELECTIVE POLYMERIC FILMS ON TECHNICAL CROPS
INFLUENCE OF MULTILAYER PHOTOSELECTIVE POLYMERIC FILMS ON TECHNICAL CROPS

Elena Grosu
S.C. ICPE Bistrita S.A., Bistrita, Romania
, , ,

Maria Râpă
S.C. ICPE Bistrita S.A., Bistrita, Romania


Constantin Opran
University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Material Science and Engineering
Elena Dobrin
University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine from Bucharest - Faculty of Horticulture
Mihaela Andreica, Mihaela Hetvary
S.C. ICPE Bistrita S.A., Bistrita, Romania

In recent decades, the climate has undergone dramatic changes that have led to global ecological damage. Therefore, it was necessary to practice agriculture to provide biological protection of plants and soil. Currently, due to its advantages “plasticulture” gained a special scale. Covering greenhouses with polymeric films, protects crops against rain, extreme temperatures and pests. Using polymeric films modified by including additives for selective transmission of sunlight results in the control of heat and light energy, having a great influence on crop productivity and precocity. The amount of solar radiation and modifying the visible spectrum of solar radiation influences vegetative mass. Harvest and its biological requirements are basic conditions for systems of crop land covering, which should provide an internal environment conducive to plant growth compared to the natural environment outside. These films can be defined as "photoselective" if the incorporation of specific additives, are able to transmit selectively the sunlight in UV-VIS and IR.


Ecoterra, 2014, 11(1):8-11
DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT IN ENERGY STRATEGIES AND POLITICS
DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT IN ENERGY STRATEGIES AND POLITICS

Cristina Ţărean
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Department of Environmental Engineering and Sustainable Development Entrepreneurship, Romania
,

Tiberiu Rusu, Tudor A. Rusu
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Department of Environmental Engineering and Sustainable Development Entrepreneurship, Romania

The article approaches the concept of Demand Side Management presenting general notions applicable in the energy field. Analysis of Demand Side Management concept wanted to show the need for correlation between the Romanian Energy Strategy with National strategy on energy efficiency and the National Strategy for Sustainable Development. This paper presents the tools available and benefits to consider this concept in the development and updating of strategies and energy policies.


Ecoterra, 2014, 11(1):12-18
MEASURES FOR DECREASEDING NEGATIVE IMPACT OF SLUDGE CAPITALIZATON
MEASURES FOR DECREASEDING NEGATIVE IMPACT OF SLUDGE CAPITALIZATON

Daniela I. Ciolea, Tiberiu Rusu, Timea Gabor
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Department of Environmental Engineering and Sustainable Development Entrepreneurship, Romania

There are few operators of purification stations that presently have options for the capitalization of sludge. Over 90% of the resulting sludge is stocked in the purification stations and the lack of interest in finding beneficial solutions for the administration of sludge are especially due to additional inquiring costs, as well as technical and administrative difficulties encountered in determining new methods of sludge removal, along with the poor quality of this product. The current report is focused on measures for reducing and/or eliminating the negative impact by adopting new solution of sludge capitalization: adequate storage, energy recovery, rebuilding of degraded terrains, reforestation, and/or utilization of mud in agriculture.


Ecoterra, 2014, 11(1):19-28
ESTIMATION OF TSS IN THE AERATION TANK OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS
ESTIMATION OF TSS IN THE AERATION TANK OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

Bogdan Humoreanu, Ioan Naşcu, Ruben Crişan
Faculty of Automation and Computer Science, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Industrial wastewater treatment covers the mechanisms and processes used to treat waters that have been contaminated by industrial or commercial activities prior to its release into the environment or its re-use. An estimation model for TSS in wastewater processing facility is presented. The model is built by data-mining algorithms based on WWTP data collected on a daily basis from SCADA system. The model performance by different algorithms is evaluated and the model built by the KStar algorithm has provided most accurate the estimations of TSS.


Ecoterra, 2014, 11(1):29-33
BIOREMEDIATION OF HEAVY METALS (ZN AND CR) USING MICROBIAL BIOSURFACTANT
BIOREMEDIATION OF HEAVY METALS (ZN AND CR) USING MICROBIAL BIOSURFACTANT

Arun Karnwal, Vaishali Bhardwaj
Bhojia Institute of Life Sciences, Bhud (Baddi), District Solan, H.P. 173205, India

In the present study ten different strains of bacteria were isolated from the heavy metal contaminated soil and water. The isolated colonies were cultured on Blood-Agar plates and subjected to haemolysis. The strains showing α and β haemolysis were observed positive for biosurfactant production. These strains were characterized biochemically and morphologically. The morphological identification confirms that the isolates were Gram negative Bacilli. Further the production of biosurfactant was confirmed with the help of CTAB method which confirms the production of biosurfactant, rhamnolipid. The purified biosurfactant from isolate vb4 was studied for degradation of heavy metal i.e. Chromium and Zinc. The degradation was analysed on X-Ray fluorescence spectrophotometry. In the sample with Chromium conc. of 10 and 20 ppm, the metal was reduced to the concentration of 4.5 ppm and 9 ppm, respectively. While in the sample with chromium at 80 ppm, the remaining amount of heavy metal was 41 ppm. In case of Zinc, the 40 ppm sample was degradated upto 2 ppm and 80 ppm sample was degradated upto 26 ppm.


Ecoterra, 2014, 11(1):34-42
POLYVINYL ALCOHOL AND STARCH BLENDS: PROPERTIES AND BIODEGRADATION BEHAVIOR
POLYVINYL ALCOHOL AND STARCH BLENDS: PROPERTIES AND BIODEGRADATION BEHAVIOR

Maria Râpă, Elena Grosu, Petruța Stoica, Mihaela Andreica, Mihaela Hetvary
S.C. ICPE Bistrita S.A., Bistrita, Romania

In this paper, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/starch blends films were prepared using the melting technique. The effect of starch content on the biodegradability of the tested blends was investigated by the variation of mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation to break %) and the determination of weight loss of specimens buried to soil until 30 days. Firstly, the results from the initial tensile strength and elongation at break tests showed as the starch content increased, the tensile properties decreased. After exposure of specimens to soil action, the tensile strength increased and elongation to break dramatically decreased. It was noticed that the weight loss increased with increasing of starch content. Finally, chemical structure by FTIR and optical properties of PVA/starch blends were investigated.


Ecoterra, 2014, 11(1):43-50
WOOD BIOMASS – PRODUCTION, STORING AND ASSESSMENT FROM THE QUALITY VIEWPOINT
WOOD BIOMASS – PRODUCTION, STORING AND ASSESSMENT FROM THE QUALITY VIEWPOINT

Mihaela Begea, Corina M. Berkesy, Mircea Crăciun, Liviu Suciu
S.C. ICPE Bistrita S.A., Bistrita, Romania
Laszlo E. Berkesy
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, University Babeş-Bolyai Cluj-Napoca
Mihaela Andreica
S.C. ICPE Bistrita S.A., Bistrita, Romania

The biomass represented by such organic matters as wood and agricultural organic residues is one of the oldest and most widespread sources of energy. Even nowadays, biomass and especially the wood-derived biomass, under the form of sawdust, wood shavings, wood remainders, bark or other biogenic fuels constitutes, one of the most popular fuels, notably at present, when the price of fossil fuels is rising. This paper sets out certain aspects regarding the technologies of extracting the wood biomass from forests, certain ways of obtaining products from this type of biomass, such as firewood, briquettes, pellets, wood chips, the storing in marketing logistic centres and the assessment from the quality viewpoint.


Ecoterra, 2014, 11(1):51-60
ELECTRIC FIELDS AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH EDUCATION
ELECTRIC FIELDS AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH EDUCATION

Petre L. Ogruţan, Gheorghe Pană
Transilvania University of Braşov, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Braşov, Romania

The paper presents the way in which the teaching activities relating with the subject of Electromagnetic Compatibility were enhanced through applying some original methods of learner involvement. The actions proposed for enhanced involvement include fieldwork and mini-projects. The mini-projects were approached through the PBL-method (Project Based Learning). One of the themes of this mini-project is the effect of electromagnetic field on human health. People are worried about radiation health effects due to the increasing number of antennas. A group of residents in the immediate vicinity of antennas exhibited symptoms which they suggested were due to a strong electric field. This paper presents the results of electric field intensity measurements in the most used frequency range. The results are compared with the limit values allowed by national and international legislation and with values measured in a different location. A final analysis of the measurement data shows that the value of the high frequency electric field is below the permissible limits and the average value of the low frequency electric field is also below the permissible limits. Compared to the witness location, the electric field values are higher due to a greater proximity towards the GSM communications antennas and a higher density of electric power cables.


Ecoterra, 2014, 11(1):61-65
USING GIS IN WASTE MANAGEMENT – SOME CONCEPTUAL CONSIDERATIONS
USING GIS IN WASTE MANAGEMENT – SOME CONCEPTUAL CONSIDERATIONS

Ciprian Bodea, Alexandru Ozunu, Nicolae Baciu, Vlad Măcicăşan
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, University Babeş-Bolyai Cluj-Napoca

Landfill has been recognized as the cheapest form for the final disposal of municipal solid waste and as such has been the most used method in the world. However, siting landfill is an extremely complex task mainly due to the fact that the identification and selection process involves many factors and strict regulations. For proper identification and selection of appropriate sites for landfills careful and systematic procedures need to be adopted and followed. Wrong siting of landfill may result in environmental degradation and often time public opposition. Geographic Information System (GIS) technology provides an advanced modelling framework for decision makers in order to analyse and simulate various spatial waste management problems, including landfill site selection.


Ecoterra, 2014, 11(1):66-75
ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC SHIELDING MATERIALS
ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC SHIELDING MATERIALS

Petre L. Ogruţan, Lia E. Aciu, Cornel Stanca
Transilvania University of Braşov, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Braşov, Romania

Electromagnetic field effects on life are important because people live in the fields of increasing intensities. The paper presents a method for the simulation of composite materials that can be used in electromagnetic shielding. The paper begins with the analysis of the importance of building materials that have electromagnetic shielding characteristics in design of new intelligent buildings. Then a model for simulate the shielding efficiency is introduced and three types of measurements to confirm the validity of the model. PSPICE and SIMULINK simulation results for shielding effectiveness evaluation applied to composite materials are presented. Three methods of measurement are presented, at 10GHz, at 1GHz and in the range 10 MHz to 1 GHz.


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