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PRIMA PAGINĂ ECOTERRA NUMĂRUL 11(3)/2014


Ecoterra, 2014, 11(3):1-4
THE ADVANTAGE OF UV IRRADIATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES IN CONJUNCTION WITH ECOTOXICITY STUDIES
THE ADVANTAGE OF UV IRRADIATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES IN CONJUNCTION WITH ECOTOXICITY STUDIES

Daniela Ciorba, Rodica Cioica
University Babeş-Bolyai from Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Cluj–Napoca, Romania

The soil toxicity can be assessed following the growth inhibition of green alga in soil elutriat. UV transformation of organic matter content, like humic acids, PAH compounds, heavy metal according with their oxidative status and water solubility or other unknown substances from soil should be much more toxicants for exposed algas. A descriptive analysis of the susceptibility of different compounds to be converted in the presence of UV radiation, in relation with its ecotoxicity is achieved in this article.


Ecoterra, 2014, 11(3):9-19
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE

Marian Proorocu
University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Paul Beldean
Environmental Protection Agency Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Andrei Crişan
Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Tania Mihaiescu, Sinziana Pauliuc
University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Romania

According to the Habitats Directive, an ecological network known as ‘Natura 2000’ has been set up at European level. This network consists of special areas of conservation and of special protected areas. The Natura 2000 network consists of sites hosting the natural habitats of Community Interest and habitats of Community interest species. Special areas of conservation (SAC) are declared in two phases. The first phase designates the Sites of Community Importance (SCI). Fifty seven (57) SCI and eight Special Protection Areas (SPA) were declared in the 6th Northwestern Region in 2007. In 2011, the Natura 2000 network in the Region has been supplemented, reaching 71 SCI and 17 SPA. Between 2007 and 2011, the land area covered by at least one conservation status (protected areas of national interest + Natura 2000 network) increased from 581,370 ha (17.02% of the region) to 752,928 ha (22.04% of the region). From the 6 counties of the 6th Northwestern Region, both SCI and SPA sites are best represented in Maramureş County.


Ecoterra, 2014, 11(3):20-27
THE ROTIFER COMMUNITIES SEASONALITY FROM SFâNTU GHEORGHE BRANCH (DANUBE DELTA)
THE ROTIFER COMMUNITIES SEASONALITY FROM SFâNTU GHEORGHE BRANCH (DANUBE DELTA)

Larisa Florescu, Mirela Moldoveanu
Ecology, Taxonomy and Nature Conservation Department, Institute of Biology, Bucharest, Romania

Many studies pointed out that the rotifers species richness and abundance from river systems was higher than other zooplankton groups, despite unfavourable conditions. In our study we follow the seasonally rotifer communities dynamics in different types of areas of Sfântu Gheorghe branch (Danube Delta, Romania). The results showed both spatial and temporal variation of the species composition and abundance. Typically, the complex structure of river zooplankton is due to the migration of non-indigenous species from the stagnant waters of permanent or temporary floodplain. In our case, 37 out of 83 total species were assessed as accidental in the rotifer community. The seasonal abundance ranged between 0.02-31.84 ind L-1. The dominant rotifer species belonged to the Keratella, Synchaeta, Asplanchna and Brachionus genus. The other species contribute with small values to the abundance. The K dominance curves emphasis a seasonal resemblance of the diversity and abundance of the three areas, depending on the season. The MDS analysis and Bray Curtis similarity confirmed a high seasonally resemblance of the rotifers of the tree areas of the branch. Also the MDS analysis revealed from upstream to the downstream differences of branch in terms of the rotifers abundance.


Ecoterra, 2014, 11(3):28-34
STUDIES ON THE ASSESSMENT OF THE WOOD BIOMASS QUALITY IN LOGISTIC CENTRES
STUDIES ON THE ASSESSMENT OF THE WOOD BIOMASS QUALITY IN LOGISTIC CENTRES

Corina M. Berkesy, Mihaela Begea
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A., Bistrita, Romania
Laszlo E. Berkesy
University Babeş-Bolyai from Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Cluj–Napoca, Romania
Ioan M.Crăciun, Liviu Suciu, Maria Someşan
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A., Bistrita, Romania

The increase and the diversification of the national and European markets of wood biomass-based energetic products called for the need of shaping a common framework for providing quality by a comparable international certification. In this paper we set out the studies made on the quality of wood biomass (firewood, woodchips, hog fuel) and the implementation of the specific standards for these products meant to heating, in two wood biomass centres of Bistriţa-Năsăud county. The quality indicators are moisture, the particle size, the water and ash content and some other characteristics, such as the wood species, which determine the quality of the wood biomass meant to obtain energy by the influence of its heat power.


Ecoterra, 2014, 11(3):35-40
THE NECESSITY OF INTEGRATED APPROACHES TO WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION
THE NECESSITY OF INTEGRATED APPROACHES TO WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

Maria I. Rusu
University of Bucharest, Faculty of Biology, Bucharest, Romania

Waste management must be integrated into sustainable development strategy that has as priorities on this chapter to prevent waste, to reduce the amount of energy and resources and minimizing emissions at source. This paper presents the main approaches to waste management in the European Union (EU). The paper shows the initiatives which underlying the reduction in waste, waste pressure on the environment, the principles used in waste management. The paper also shows the policies and the strategies used in waste management, waste management trends in the EU and the initiatives of EU in this field.


Ecoterra, 2014, 11(3):41-57
NUMERICAL MODELING OF PROCESSES IN WATER TREATMENT PLANTS AS A BASIS FOR AN OPTIMAL DESIGN
NUMERICAL MODELING OF PROCESSES IN WATER TREATMENT PLANTS AS A BASIS FOR AN OPTIMAL DESIGN

Sorin C. Ulinici, Grigore Vlad, Dumitru Vâju, Iosif Balint, Gabriela Băisan, Mihaela Hetvary
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A., Bistrita, Romania

Centrally supplied water for human consumption is subject to complex physico-chemical and biological treatment processes, from the source to the consumer. The degree of complexity for these processes depend both of the quality of the water source as well of the higher quality requirements imposed by regulations. The investment and operating costs of water treatment systems, as well as energy efficiency are also key factors in the selection of the applied technologies. The design of  tehnological processes (related both of the capture and water conveyance as well of the water treatment plants) requires a complex engineering approach including specialities related to hydraulics, physical engineering, chemical engineering, electrical installations and industrial automation. The complexity and the interconnection degree of the involved processes (also the higher costs even in the pilot stage) determines the numerical modelling and simulation of processes as a mandatory stage in the design process with a major aim related to the evaluation of efficiency and operational costs and also risk assessment. The paper shows numerical modeling methodology used for the design of the technological processes for drinking water treatment, based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) for the numerical modeling of some specific processes (e.g. filtration/bio-filtration, ozonation, disinfection) and on a free software package (EPANET 2.0) developed by the Environmental Protection Agency U.S. (EPA) for the modeling of the hydraulics of the water treatment plants. Are also presented numerical models which were used as a design basis for some water treatment  facilities already in operation. 


Ecoterra, 2014, 11(3):58-66
USING SOFT-COMPUTING METHODS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT
USING SOFT-COMPUTING METHODS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT

Ildiko Tulbure
University „1 December 1918“ Alba Iulia, Romania;Clausthal University of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany

In order to quantify environmental impacts of economic activities environmental indicators are relevant to be used. Discussions on a global level regarding the environmental quality are nowadays connected to the concept of sustainable development. For the operationalisation of sustainable development indicators for economic, environmental and social aspects have to be developed and used. Worldwide several environmental indicators are used, especially for air and water pollution. In the present paper a possibility to define in a modular way an environmental indicator will be presented by taking into consideration the impact on health, impact on ecosphere as well as the emitted quantity of different air pollutants. An aggregation method based on fuzzy logic will be presented. The obtained results will be discussed and conclusions concerning the usage potential of the presented methodology will be drawn.


Ecoterra, 2014, 11(3):67-73
STUDY ON THE MECHANISMS OF PHYTOREMEDIATION
STUDY ON THE MECHANISMS OF PHYTOREMEDIATION

Melania N. Boroş, Valer Micle, Simona E. Avram
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Department of Environmental Engineering and Sustainable Development Entrepreneurship, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Environmental pollution causes more and more casualties and the improvement of environmental quality is a mandatory requirement for a sustainable development. A large variety of sites can be decontaminated using phytoremediation. Several projects have been developed and applied to large scale or pilot projects. This study presents the mechanisms of phytoremediation which uses plants and their characteristics to extract, neutralize or stabilize different types of contaminants in the soil. Plants should be chosen carefully because a limited number of species can be involved in the implementation of this type of projects. There are many factors that can influence the efficiency of phytoremediation: the type of contaminants, root system, soil organisms, enzymes, soil properties etc. Phytoremediation is a green technology and a cost-effective method that contributes to the improvement of the environment by creating habitats and a better landscape aesthetics. The aim of this study is to identify the treatment mechanisms that are used by plants to clean up different sites.


Ecoterra, 2014, 11(3):74-81
ADVANCED WEB APPLICATION FOR EDITING PURPOSES IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT
ADVANCED WEB APPLICATION FOR EDITING PURPOSES IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT

Rostislav Netek
Department of Geoinformatics, Palacký University in Olomouc, Czech Republic

The paper describes a unique idea - on-screen editing of both spatial and attributes data directly via the Internet environment. It takes advantage of WebGIS 2.0 principle as a combination of WebGIS and Web 2.0 approaches (Rich Internet Application and Service-oriented Architecture). It allows the creation of a web-based map application with customized and advanced functionality. The concept of Rich Internet Application (RIA) brings tools, practices and conventions from the desktop platform into fully web applications, thereby providing greater user comfort. In the case of Service-oriented architecture (SOA), a user does not deal with original data as was typical before. The data are shared as web services independently on the platform. Web Map Service (WMS) or Web Feature Service (WFS) are now widely used for GIS solutions. An extension called Transactional Web Feature Service (WFS-T) enables data editing by remote access.  Usually, a desktop or server solution is required for map display and/or editing.  This case study uses the WFS-T innovative approach for WebGIS 2.0 solutions. The WFS-T support has been developed and implemented into a customized application by an additional widget. It extends the visualisation feature by the editing feature. Both visualization and editing tasks are fully accessible online. The map client allows on-screen editing of map content. Both spatial and attribute data could be modified in real time directly via a web browser (no installation process is required). The case study is developed with the aim to support crisis management, especially in collaboration with the Fire Brigade of the Olomouc region.


Ecoterra, 2014, 11(3):5-8
FOR A NEW AND BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
FOR A NEW AND BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

Nicolae Heredea
S.C. NHN Ecoinvest S.R.L.

In the first part of the presentation the author resumes and summarises the concept of the Vital Natural Atmospheric Calotte, first presented at the ELSEDIMA 2012 conference, as the limited space on planet Earth where people live freely, naturally, without any support. The essential parts of this space are air and earth.


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