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PRIMA PAGINĂ ECOTERRA NUMĂRUL 12(1)/2015


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(1):1-6
ECOLOGICAL DETAILS OF FORMING CONVERGENT COROLLA PAINTING ON EXAMPLE OF FLOWERING PLANTS OF CHIşINăU
ECOLOGICAL DETAILS OF FORMING CONVERGENT COROLLA PAINTING ON EXAMPLE OF FLOWERING PLANTS OF CHIşINăU

Irina Kolomiets
Institute of Ecology and Geography, Academy of Sciences of Republic of Moldova

The areal and temporal diversity of corolla painting in flowering plants was studied. One hundred and seventy five (175) species of the flora of Chisinau city were involved, and 317 species of herbaceous plants of Moldova were analyzed using literature sources. At flowering plants of C layer the seasonal convergence of corolla color was established. The conclusion deduced is that quantitative and qualitative parameters of solar spectrum are the limiting factor in the evolution of corolla color.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(1):7-20
ADDITIVES INFLUENCE ON THE EARTH CHARACTERISTICS USED IN VERNACULAR CONSTRUCTION
ADDITIVES INFLUENCE ON THE EARTH CHARACTERISTICS USED IN VERNACULAR CONSTRUCTION

Gabriela Călătan, Andreea Hegyi, Carmen Dico
INCD URBAN-INCERC Cluj-Napoca Branch, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Calin Mircea
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Since the 90s there were numerous research studies attesting possibility of using sandy clay as a building material for making structures that meet the criteria of sustainability, reliability and thermal comfort, bringing economic benefits and especially environmental. This work shows the possibility of improvement of physical and mechanical characteristics of sandy clay (axial shrinkage, density, mechanical strength), by introducing the mixture of filler material (sand, lime paste, bone glue, NaCl, NaOH). The experimental results showed major benefits obtained by using sand (reducing axial contractions, increased bulk density (indicator Storage/disposal of heat). The mixture with 65% sandy clay, 35% sand and 33% water presented physico-mechanical indicaters that fits best within the limits reported in the literature. By inserting slurry lime or substituting mixing water with NaOH solutions and/or bone glue, it identified the opportunity for achievement mixtures that meet the provided criteria with the condition of concomitant use of the sand, too. Substituting of the mixed water with NaCl solution did not help to improve the parameters studied. To determine the optimal proportions and combining modalities of filler materials, further studies are needed in order to optimize the physical-mechanical parameters that were found wanting, but to be kept the identified benefits (workability, plasticity, small axial shrinkage, high mechanical resistance). The studied sandy clay is a suitable choice, but it is necessary to add other filler materials, the sand being essential.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(1):21-24
THE PLACE AND ROLE OF THE CHAIRMAN OF THE COUNTY PROTECTION COMMITTEE IN CASE OF DISASTERS IN HUNGARY
THE PLACE AND ROLE OF THE CHAIRMAN OF THE COUNTY PROTECTION COMMITTEE IN CASE OF DISASTERS IN HUNGARY

Zsolt Dalnoki
Baranya County Protection Committee, Pécs, Hungary

The County Protection Committee (CPC) is an administration body, which operates under the administrative control of the Government. It is responsible in specified cases for national defense/protection and disaster management that are provided by law and government decrees and decisions. After the new legislation process in Hungary, the Head of the County Government Office (HCGO) is, at the same time, the Chairman of the County Protection Committee (CCPC). Fortunately, nowadays, military tasks relegated to the second priority in the activities of the CPC. But, we can see that the number and the power of destructions by natural and manmade disasters are increasing. These cases impose more and more tasks for the CPC and for the CCPC.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(1):25-31
THE ANTHROPIC IMPACT OF WASTE DUMPS ON WATER QUALITY IN THE NEAGRA ŞARULUI RIVER BASIN
THE ANTHROPIC IMPACT OF WASTE DUMPS ON WATER QUALITY IN THE NEAGRA ŞARULUI RIVER BASIN

Ciprian Şchiopu, Carmen Roba, Ioana Piştea
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Babeş-Bolyai University from Cluj Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Mihaela Hrisa Florescu, Mirela Cîmpean
Faculty of Biology and Geology, Babeş-Bolyai University from Cluj Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Cristina Roşu
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Babeş-Bolyai University from Cluj Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
István Endrődi
National University of Public Service, Budapest, Hungary

In order to investigate the impact caused by the activities developed in the sulfur mine located in the close vicinity of the Neagra Şarului River, several biological material, sediment and water samples were collected. The water and sediment samples located closed to the mine proved to be highly acidic. The heavy metals identified in the river water samples were: Fe, Zn and Ni. Considering the heavy metals content, the water samples located closed to sulfur mine belong to the 5th water quality class while the other samples can be classified as 1st or 2nd water quality class. The heavy metals identified in the sediments samples were: Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Zn and Fe. In 50% of sediment samples, Cu and Cd exceeded the maximum contaminant level set by the Romania Legislation. The water quality was also assessed using three biotic indices based on benthic invertebrate communities: the Extended Biotic Index, the Biological Monitoring Working Party adapted for Poland and the Average Score per Taxon. The level of saprobity and trophicity was calculated using bioindicator diatoms. The structure of the benthic invertebrate communities, together with their indicative values for water quality showed high polluted waters in the Neagra Şarului River and the Bistrița River. Bioindicator diatoms were absent on the Neagra Şarului River and the Bistrița River because of physico-chemical conditions.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(1):32-43
THE PLACE AND ROLE OF THE INFORMATION SYSTEM CIVILHELP.HU IN THE STRUCTURE OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN THE EXECUTION OF CIVIL PROTECTION TASKS
THE PLACE AND ROLE OF THE INFORMATION SYSTEM CIVILHELP.HU IN THE STRUCTURE OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN THE EXECUTION OF CIVIL PROTECTION TASKS

István Endrődi
National University of Public Service, Budapest, Hungary

The increasingly developing information systems, designed to inform the public and raise the level of safety culture are all seeking to support the effectiveness of social protection capabilities. In this study, the authors attempt to analyze and evaluate the importance of emergency communication and (public) information in disaster management. They are researching new ways of communication options and methods that promote and support the survival conditions of the population in the protection phase.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(1):44-49
COV LIMITATION AND EXPLOSION PROTECTION IN TERMINALS AND AUTOMOTIVE FUEL DISTRIBUTION INSTALLATIONS
COV LIMITATION AND EXPLOSION PROTECTION IN TERMINALS AND AUTOMOTIVE FUEL DISTRIBUTION INSTALLATIONS

Adrian Jurca, Mihaela Părăian, Emilian Ghicioi, Niculina Vătavu, Leonard Lupu, Florin Păun
INCD INSEMEX Petrosani, Department for Safety of Installations and Explosion Protected Equipment, Petrosani, Romania

The paperwork presents the pollution sources in fuel warehouses and fuel distribution stations and implicitly the recovery measures for vapors in stage I and stage II, together with the explosion prevention and protection requirements. The mixtures of flammable vapors recovered and the atmosphere air generate explosive atmospheres that may easily be ignited by various ignition sources. Due to explosion hazards occurring in these Ex classified installations, it is necessary to adopt adequate protective measures in or de to prevent explosive atmospheres ignition within Ex classified areas, as well as measures to decrease or mitigate explosions to delimited areas. The protective systems of flame arrester types employed have to fulfill the requirements in the European Directive 94/9/EC ATEX. For conformity assessment with the requirements of the ATEX Directive within the Product Assessment Body INSEMEX-OEC adequate assessment and testing procedures had been developed.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(1):50-60
MANAGEMENT OF MINING WASTE AT VALEA ARSULUI DUMP, ROMANIA
MANAGEMENT OF MINING WASTE AT VALEA ARSULUI DUMP, ROMANIA

Csaba R. Lorinţ, Maria Lazăr, Adrian Florea
Mining Engineering Faculty - University of Petroşani, Hunedoara, Romania

Vulcan is one of the few active remaining collieries from Jiu Valley, in the Meridional Carpathian Mountains. The Valea Arsului heap stockpiles the tailings from the underground workings from Vulcan colliery. European legislation stipulates the necessity of a waste management plan. The location area of Valea Arsului heap is affected by the subsidence phenomenon due to underground coal extraction. In the paper is presented the stages involved in order to provide the landfill capacity in respect to the subsidence, stability, and environmental issues.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(1):61-65
REDUCING SOCIO-ECONOMIC VULNERABILITY TO DISASTERS
REDUCING SOCIO-ECONOMIC VULNERABILITY TO DISASTERS

Ionel Nuţă
“General Magheru” Inspectorate for Emergency Situations of Valcea County

The extreme manifestation of certain natural phenomena, to which one may add technological hazards, meteorogical situations, global warming and lately non-symmetrical, non-classical events of unknown origin, have immediate or in time influences, in a direct or indirect manner, upon the life of each individual and mankind in its entirety. Climate changes represent one of the biggest challenges in the modern society, a challenge that should be approached at a global level. The European Union joins the global effort to counteract the climatic changes, to limit its consequences and to decrease the probability of major and irreversible effects on a planetary level. The general purpose is to meet the needs of the current generation without compromising the abilities of next generations to sustain their own needs, in other words, the capacity of planet Earth to support life, in all its diversity. Along these lines, Romania, through the redesign and harmonization of its institutional frame disposes of a modern legal frame which targets the national and international framework capable in a permanent manner to prevent and supervise emergency situations, ensuring and conducting human resources, financial resources which are essential for the reduction of socio-economic vulnerability to disasters and for the restoration of a state of normality.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(1):66-72
SPECIFIC REGULATORY CYCLE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF EUROPEAN LEGISLATION
SPECIFIC REGULATORY CYCLE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF EUROPEAN LEGISLATION

Alin L. Pop, Dan V. Jaşcău, Vasile F. Soporan, Elena M. Pică
The adoption of legislative acts and construction law in the European Union is a complex process involving consideration of several factors which must be organized in such a way as to meet the situations and problems in all European Union countries. Developing European legislation involving the confrontation of two interests, namely the general European interest and the interests of Member States expressed at European level. Since the identification of problems to be solved at European level and until a binding legal document that provides solutions and ways to address the problems identified, there are several steps to be taken. The steps to be taken for the development of European legislation constitute a regulatory cycle in a specific field. This paper describes and analyzes a series of regulatory steps of focusing on environmental waste management.

The adoption of legislative acts and construction law in the European Union is a complex process involving consideration of several factors which must be organized in such a way as to meet the situations and problems in all European Union countries. Developing European legislation involving the confrontation of two interests, namely the general European interest and the interests of Member States expressed at European level. Since the identification of problems to be solved at European level and until a binding legal document that provides solutions and ways to address the problems identified, there are several steps to be taken. The steps to be taken for the development of European legislation constitute a regulatory cycle in a specific field. This paper describes and analyzes a series of regulatory steps of focusing on environmental waste management.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(1):73-75
REEVALUATING THE WATER RESOURCES IN TOURISM
REEVALUATING THE WATER RESOURCES IN TOURISM

Tudor A. Rusu, Tiberiu Rusu
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Romania has an ample range of hydrographical resources: lakes, rivers, mineral waters, that can be exploited economically by tourism. The distribution of water resources that can be exploited is wide due to the fact that waters have an essential role in creating the tourism environment. They can generate various forms of tourism such as spa, recreational tourism, and a form of educational tourism for students, as training applications of school and university curricula. In favor of a good tourism management, it is appropriate to classify the areas depending on water quality and hydrologic specific of the area, but also according to the existing facilities and recreational opportunities. Curative properties of the thermal and mineral waters in Romania are not superiorly revaluated due to the lack modern infrastructure. It is essential to value the areas of educational tourism, as well as the thematic one, especially the areas with special karst phenomena, emphasizing on implementing the concept of sustainable regional development.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(1):76-82
INFLUENCE OF THE NUMBER OF INHABITANTS, SURFACE AND POPULATION DENSITY ON SOIL CONTAMINATION WITH AS, PB, HG, ZN, CD AND CU IN URBAN RECREATIONAL AREAS OF ROMANIA
INFLUENCE OF THE NUMBER OF INHABITANTS, SURFACE AND POPULATION DENSITY ON SOIL CONTAMINATION WITH AS, PB, HG, ZN, CD AND CU IN URBAN RECREATIONAL AREAS OF ROMANIA

Andra C. Gagiu
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Camelia S. Botezan
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Babeş-Bolyai University from Cluj Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Luminiţa C. Pirău, Elena M. Pică
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Claudiu Tănăselia, Monica Ursu
INCDO-INOE 2000, Research Institute for Analytical Instrumentation, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

The surface of a locality, number of inhabitants and density are socio-demographic descriptive indicators of territorial and administrative divisions frequently related to urban soils contamination in environmental scientific research. The present study aims at assessing the connection between these indicators and pollution with various chemical elements in Romanian urban topsoils. In order to do so data for 19 cities has been analysed in correlation with As, Pb, Hg, Zn, Cd and Cu mean concentrations investigated in recreational areas. The obtained results highlighted that there is limited connection between the number of inhabitants or surface of the cities and the obtained concentrations. Therefore, when discussing cities in Romania one cannot assert that the biggest and most populated ones are implicitly more polluted. However the population density correlates, in a negative statistically significant manner with the analysed concentrations, indicating pollution problems related to historical contamination in large surface formerly industrialised cities.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(1):83-88
RESEARCH ON THE APPLICATION OF A DYNAMIC MATHEMATICAL MODEL TO THE MONITORING OF AN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM
RESEARCH ON THE APPLICATION OF A DYNAMIC MATHEMATICAL MODEL TO THE MONITORING OF AN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM

Tudor A. Rusu, Sanda Pădureţu, Tiberiu Rusu
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

The monitoring of an aquatic ecological system can be performed using computer engineering. This paper presents an ecological system consisting of a natural lake, a river that feeds the lake and a river which leads the water from the lake to another lake. Using computing and making certain approximations it can be continuously evaluated the depth of the water in the lake depending on the inbound and outgoing flow, an extremely important parameter for the aquatic ecosystem.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(1):89-93
MONITORING SURFACE WATER POLLUTION USING BIOLOGICAL MARKERS
MONITORING SURFACE WATER POLLUTION USING BIOLOGICAL MARKERS

Sebastian Plugaru, Mihaela Orban, Tiberiu Rusu
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Establishing the ecological status of continental aquatic ecosystems must be based on biological quality elements, considering the hydromorphological, chemical, physico-chemical and specific pollutants markers that influence these biologic markers. The evaluation of such elements can show the presence of natural conditions, their minor alterations or the extent of the anthropogenic impact and quality status of water bodies at a certain period of time. It is not possible to test and monitor water quality in all places at all times, but there are ways to indirectly infer water quality using biomarkers. The biomarker is an organism or community of organisms that act through modifications to the presence of a toxic substance or concentrate the toxic substance. The biomarker organisms can use to identify and qualify the effects of environmental pollutants. The marker organism is any biological species that defines a trait or characteristic of the environment.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(1):94-99
THE EMISSION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM QUERCUS ROBUR PLANTS AFFECTED BY PHYLLOXERA QUERCUS AND TEMPERATURE
THE EMISSION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM QUERCUS ROBUR PLANTS AFFECTED BY PHYLLOXERA QUERCUS AND TEMPERATURE

Andreea Pag, Daniel Tomescu, Adina Bodescu
Institute of Technical and Natural Sciences Research-Development of Aurel Vlaicu University, Arad, Romania
Astrid Kännaste, Ülo Niinemets
Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu 51014, Estonia
Lucian Copolovici
Institute of Technical and Natural Sciences Research-Development of Aurel Vlaicu University, Arad, Romania

In this study, green leaves volatiles (GLV) and isoprene emissions were studied in Quercus robur leaves subjected to biotic stress (different infection degree of Phylloxera quercus) combined with abiotic stress (temperature). Results obtained have been shown that GLV emission rates from Q. robur infected leaves are increasing along with the number of leaves infected spots compared to control. A cumulative effect of abiotic and biotic stress has been noticed.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(1):100-107
ARE THERE ANY ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PRINTING PRINCIPLES? ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES LINKED TO DOCUMENT PRINTING
ARE THERE ANY ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PRINTING PRINCIPLES? ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES LINKED TO DOCUMENT PRINTING

Petre Ogruţan
Transilvania University of Braşov, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Braşov, Romania

Modern world needs printed documents increasingly more and one of the biggest ecological challenges linked to the printing equipment is the large amount of consumed toner and ink cartridges discarded in the environment. The paper sets out a comparison among the main current printing principles with their features, it highlights the waste material policy, it analyses electrophotographic, ink jet, thermal printing and a newly applied environmentally friendly principle, namely solid ink printing. The paper also sets out methods and initiatives of mitigating the amount of waste materials discarded in the environment, it analyses the policy of the manufacturing companies in this industry and discusses the users’ responsibility.


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