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PRIMA PAGINĂ ECOTERRA NUMĂRUL 12(3)/2015


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(3):1-13
AUTONOMOUS INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY REUSING WATER AND SLUDGE
AUTONOMOUS INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY REUSING WATER AND SLUDGE

Mircea Craciun, Daniela Ignat, Vlad Grigore, Suciu Liviu, Corina Berkesy
S.C. ICPE Bistrita S.A., Bistriţa, Romania
Valer Turcin
ICPE – Centre 5 Bucharest, Romania
Bartha Sandor
ICPE – Centre 6 Bucharest, Romania

This paper deals with the creation of an energetically independent, profit-making integrated wastewater treatment system, by water and sludge reutilisation, with low operation costs. The integrated system will include a mechanical-biological wastewater treatment plant with active sludge and biological ponds, a green energy catching and storing station and a greenhouse. The wastewater treatment plant will combine the biological treatment technology with active sludge and the wastewater treatment with the biological ponds, which will be used as buffer-tanks for irrigation, as well. The green energy producing and storing plant will be composed by photovoltaic solar panels and will supply the wastewater treatment plant and the greenhouse with electrical power. The greenhouses for water and sludge reutilisation will use 20 to 100% treated water and 100% sludge and will support water-loving flowers, ornamental plants and technical plants. They will be endowed with a high performance irrigation system and heating installation for winter. An approximate 50-150% benefit from the operation expenses is expected (after covering the treatment and cultivation expenses). The integrated system will be controlled and monitored by a continuous automation and control installation in real time, which will send the parameters of the wastewater treatment, irrigation and ventilation process to the operator’s room. 


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(3):14-20
VENTILATION SYSTEMS FOR INDOOR RADON MITIGATION IN ENERGY-EFFICIENT HOUSES
VENTILATION SYSTEMS FOR INDOOR RADON MITIGATION IN ENERGY-EFFICIENT HOUSES

Alexandra Cucoş (Dinu), Constantin Cosma, Tiberius Dicu, Botond Papp
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Babeş-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Cristina Horju-Deac
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering and Entrepreneurship of Sustainable Development, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Radon inside buildings represents the main source of human exposure to ionizing radiation in the world. Studies in many countries have shown that high levels of indoor radon increases the risk of lung cancer. A current challenge in research dedicated to residential radon comes from the growing number of modern houses, well insulated with a highly airtight building envelope or conventional rehabilitated in order to reduce energy consumption. Modern trends in civil construction are based on increasing the energy efficiency of buildings in which we live. In the light of the ongoing policy to improve the energy efficiency of existing buildings, it is essential to evaluate the effect of new construction methods on the indoor radon level.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(3):21-24
CONSIDERATIONS ON THE GREENING OF THE FREE MOVEMENT OF GOODS ON THE EU INTERNAL MARKET FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH PROTECTION
CONSIDERATIONS ON THE GREENING OF THE FREE MOVEMENT OF GOODS ON THE EU INTERNAL MARKET FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH PROTECTION

Cristina L. Erimia, Rodica Sîrbu
Ovidius University of Constanta, Faculty of Pharmacy, Constanta, Romania

Given that the harmonized legislation of the EU has defined the internal market, establishing the principle of the free movement of goods in concrete terms and for specific products, such as, for example, medicinal products, this article examines the restrictions and prohibitions which, even if raise barriers to free trade, they defend important objectives, such as environmental protection d human health. In the context of a globalized economy, a functioning internal market of goods is an essential component of the current and future prosperity of the European Union. At the same time, new innovative products and technical progress involve new challenges, and a national regulatory framework that ignores these developments may soon become an obstacle to cross-border trade. The article aims to analyse, in the context of the current major global developments, how the reasons justifying the limiting of the free movement of goods, imposed by the principle of precaution for reasons of environmental and human health protection, have been used over time. Thus, we will show how, in all EU policies, the concept of public health is inextricably linked to sustainable development and the effective protection of the health and life of citizens cannot be conceived without the greening of free movement of goods, more and more visible in recent years.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(3):25-31
CONSCIOUSNESS LEVEL OF WOMEN LIVING IN THE COUNTRYSIDE REGARDING FOOD SAFETY: THE SAMPLE OF GOZSUZ VILLAGE
CONSCIOUSNESS LEVEL OF WOMEN LIVING IN THE COUNTRYSIDE REGARDING FOOD SAFETY: THE SAMPLE OF GOZSUZ VILLAGE

Emine Yilmaz, Yasemin Oraman, Gülen Ozdemir, Sevcan Arap
Namik Kemal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Agricultural Economy, 59030, Tekirdag, Turkey
Ismail Yilmaz
Namik Kemal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Food Engineering, 59030, Tekirdag, Turkey

Consumers are one of the most important components of the food safety chain. The most important responsibility in this chain which consumers must take on is to be conscious of the factors affecting food safety negatively and to obey hygiene and sanitary rules in each process from buying food and consuming it. In this study, knowledge levels of women living in the countryside in the face of health risks concerning food safety have been determined. The study was conducted with each female consumer from 280 houses residing in Malkara Town Gözsüz Village through face to face interviews. In addition to socio-demographic variables, a number of questions assessing their experience, knowledge and attitudes in relation to buying food, consumption, food safety and quality were also asked to the women. The factors that are effective on women’s having knowledge regarding food safety were set forth by means of multivariate analysis methods. According to the analysis results, the finding that more than %70 of women have not heard the concept of food safety and that %95 of them have not had any knowledge concerning Alo 174 of food safety line was reached.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(3):32-35
UNIVERSITY ENTREPRENEURIAL VIRTUAL PLATFORM IN THE FIELD OF ECOLOGICAL MATERIAL ENGINEERING FOR BALCANIC AREA
UNIVERSITY ENTREPRENEURIAL VIRTUAL PLATFORM IN THE FIELD OF ECOLOGICAL MATERIAL ENGINEERING FOR BALCANIC AREA

Mihail M. Vescan, Vasile F. Soporan, Alin L. Pop
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

The purpose of this paper is to highlight some general considerations on a virtual platform, as a means of aggregation of new environment-friendly markets, both classic and virtual, with application in the economics of services and products specific to circular economy, but also on their mode of operation as virtual economic products, having as major goals the commercial transactions, trading relations and communication within the virtual environment of companies and organisations whose economic scope of activity relates to the field of organic materials and products.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(3):36-41
INFORMAL SECTOR PARTICIPATION IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT – STUDY CASE: CLUJ-NAPOCA, ROMANIA
INFORMAL SECTOR PARTICIPATION IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT – STUDY CASE: CLUJ-NAPOCA, ROMANIA

Ioana N. Pop, Călin Baciu
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Babeş-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Cosmin Briciu
Green Partners, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Valentin Tofana
Asociatia Ecotic, Bucharest, Romania
Nicoleta Bican-Brişan
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Babeş-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Waste management is one of the most challenging issues that local authorities in developing countries are facing. An additional challenge in this domain is given by the presence of the informal recycling sector represented by the so called “waste pickers” or informal recyclers. Although there are various studies referring to the implication of the informal sector in solid waste management, there is no official data to confirm its magnitude. This is also the case of Cluj-Napoca, Romania where public authorities tend to ignore the existence of the informal recycling sector when it comes to planning waste management system, especially because there is no quantitative information and an analysis of the actual role of this sector. Therefore this paper focuses on presenting the implications of the informal sector in the solid waste management systems by bringing into attention the results of an international study performed in 2006 and updated in 2010 on the economic aspects of the informal sector in solid waste management, which was developed in 6 cities around the world, one of these being Cluj-Napoca. Related aspects to the influence of the informal recyclers need to be carefully taken into account in the near future in order to properly plan an effective waste management system, involve all relevant stakeholders and achieve a sustainable and efficient system.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(3):42-47
ENVIRONMENTAL CAPACITY DETERMINANTS - SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL ASSESSMENT
ENVIRONMENTAL CAPACITY DETERMINANTS - SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL ASSESSMENT

Dejan Vasović, Jelena Malenović-Nikolić, Goran Janaćković
University of Niš, Faculty of Occupational Safety in Niš, Čarnojevića 10A, 18000 Niš, Serbia

The scientific use of the concepts of environmental capacity is central to many areas of  environmental protection and environmental quality management processes, and is a basic tool for the analysis of adverse effects of environmental problems both regarding state of the environment (eco-centric point of view) and potential of environmental services to humans (eco-anthropogenic point of view). While it is adequately recognized in scientific resources that environmental capacity determinants are fundamental for successful implementation of environmental protection measures, it is not so adequately recognized that determinants of environmental capacity are temporally and spatially variable. There is a list of environmental capacity determinants to be evaluated in spatial and temporal way: biophysical (environmental) and social (social in narrow sense, economic and institutional). The subject of this paperwork is aimed towards spatial and temporal assessment of abovementioned determinants. Identification and assessment of the importance of different spatial and temporal aspects should be based on quantitative and qualitative methods such as Turner's method and AHP.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(3):48-54
HEAVY METALS IN MUNICIPAL WASTE DUMPS LEACHATE AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT
HEAVY METALS IN MUNICIPAL WASTE DUMPS LEACHATE AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT

Dan V. Jaşcău, Alin Pop
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Alexandru Fekete
“Apele Române” National Administration, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Elena M. Pică
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

The potential impact of the leachate generated by the municipal waste landfills on the environment has become very important in the last few years, as shown by the large number of scientifically work elaborated. Depending on the composition, the degree of decomposition of municipal waste or hydrological factors, the leachate can become extremely contaminated and dangerous for the environment, especially in the case of uncontrolled leachate drainage. Mainly, the contaminants found in the leachate are dissolved organic matter, inorganic macro-components, xenobiotic organic compounds or heavy metals. The importance of heavy metals from the leachate’s composition consists of their risk and toxicity on human health and environment. The current paper presents the analysis of the content of metal ions from the composition of the leachate generated by a non-compliant municipal waste landfill. It also presents a comparative study of the composition of the analysed leachate with the composition of the leachate analysed in other studies. The paper reviews the management of the leachate generated by the non-compliant municipal waste landfill.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(3):55-59
CONSIDERATIONS ON THE EVOLUTION OF EUROPEAN INSTITUTIONAL TERMINOLOGY USED IN THE WASTE MANAGEMENT BY USING THE KEYWORDS METHOD
CONSIDERATIONS ON THE EVOLUTION OF EUROPEAN INSTITUTIONAL TERMINOLOGY USED IN THE WASTE MANAGEMENT BY USING THE KEYWORDS METHOD

Alin L. Pop, Vasile F. Soporan
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Manole D. Bogdan
University “1 December 1918” Alba Iulia, Faculty of Law and Social Sciences, Alba Iulia, Romania
Dan V. Jaşcău, Elena M. Pică
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

The main objective of this paper is to present the institutional terminology used in waste management activities. Institutional terminology is presented as it appears in existing documents specific to the European Union. The paper presents the existing definitions in the area of waste management in the European Union, a trend which is correlated with the dynamic progress and waste management.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(3):60-64
THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE TRANSITION TO GREEN ECONOMY IN THE TRAINING ACTIVITIES
THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE TRANSITION TO GREEN ECONOMY IN THE TRAINING ACTIVITIES

Viorica Miches (Samuilă), Vasile F. Soporan
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

The main objective of this paper is related to the analysis of the education and training in Romania, which are in a complex organizational and redesigning process, conditioned and determined by the tasks assumed by Romania as a EU member state in education and training, but also by the challenges and needs identified by the labor market for a "transition to a green economy".


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(3):65-72
TOWNSCAPE CONCEPT AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO URBAN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. CASE STUDY: PIATRA-NEAMT CITY
TOWNSCAPE CONCEPT AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO URBAN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. CASE STUDY: PIATRA-NEAMT CITY

Cătălina E. Roşu, Ioan A. Irimuş
Faculty of Geography, Babeş-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

The study approaches the problematic of unsuitable urban planning and aesthetic development of the territory according to the natural environment of Piatra-Neamt city and comes up with new solutions and measures for an equilibrated and sustainable planning. The methodology used implies cartographic materials from different periods of time to analyse the dynamics of the landscape and the environmental evolution. The territorial analysis determined the actual problematic of the urban aesthetics and planning. By combining these materials with the human activity from the urban space will result a number of maps necessary for the aim of the study: hypsometry, protected areas, land-use and landscape typology. Once identified the dysfunctions of the actual urban planning, it is necessary to provide measures in order to apply the townscape concept to the urban area of Piatra-Neamt city. The study concludes with a number of strategic measures for Piatra-Neamt city, measures that are to be useful for an enhanced planning and a sustainable development of the urban area, a more aesthetic, complementary and coherent image, which provides a healthier environment and a true townscape, not only functionality.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(3):73-78
DOMOGLED – VALEA CERNEI NATIONAL PARK MONITORING USING SATELLITE TECHNOLOGY
DOMOGLED – VALEA CERNEI NATIONAL PARK MONITORING USING SATELLITE TECHNOLOGY

Mihai V. Herbei, Roxana C. Herbei
Faculty of Agriculture, Banat University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine from Timisoara, Timisoara, Romania
Cosmin A. Popescu
Faculty of Mine, University of Petrosani, Petrosani, Romania
Radu Bertici
Faculty of Agriculture, Banat University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine from Timisoara, Timisoara, Romania

This research studied the Domogled Valea Cernei National Park, Romania, based on Landsat 8 system facilities, supported by specialized software and information technology growing capacity data processing and analysis in the context of the need for land areas by providing real-time data and information relating state or vegetation dynamics. In the present study there were calculated several vegetation indices (VI) on the studied area: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index - NDVI, Normalized Difference Water Index - NDWI, Normalized Difference Moisture Index - NDMI, Normalized Difference Ratio Burning - NDBR.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(3):79-83
DETERMINATION OF THE TOTAL SODIUM METABISULPHIDE LEVEL OF SHRIMPS (PARAPENAEUS LONGIROSTRIS) SOLD IN TEKIRDAG
DETERMINATION OF THE TOTAL SODIUM METABISULPHIDE LEVEL OF SHRIMPS (PARAPENAEUS LONGIROSTRIS) SOLD IN TEKIRDAG

Harun Uran
Kirklareli University, Faculty of Engineering, Dept of Food Engineering, 39100 Kirklareli, Turkey
Ismail Yilmaz
Namik Kemal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Food Engineering, 59030, Tekirdag, Turkey

Shrimps, despite their high nutritional value, are aqua product forms that can spoil fast. After the hunting, spoil reactions become visible with darkened color. To prevent the emergence of this situation, the most popular method is application of sodium metabisulphide. Nonetheless this chemical has critical threats for health; hence particular attention must be paid in the use of shrimps. Present study aims to determine the amount of sodium metabisulphide residuals in the shrimps on market sale and compare with the approved limit of use by the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock. In our study the amount of sodium metabisulphide residuals in the shrimps sold within 40 different companies in Tekirdag has been investigated and obtained data have been statistically evaluated. Analyzed data manifested that although the amounts of sodium metabisulphide residuals in some samples were high, almost all samples were within the approved limit of sodium metabisulphide amount.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(3):84-89
ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY TOMOGRAPHY USED FOR SOIL POLLUTED AREA IDENTIFICATION AROUND AN OIL TERMINAL
ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY TOMOGRAPHY USED FOR SOIL POLLUTED AREA IDENTIFICATION AROUND AN OIL TERMINAL

Monica Moraru
Sabba Stefănescu Geodynamics Institute of Romania, Bucharest, Romania
Mihai Mafteiu
SC MM Georesearch SRL, Bucharest, Romania

Electrical resistivity surveys have been used for many decades in mining, geotechnical and hydrogeological investigations. More recently, it has been used for environmental surveys. In this paper, polluted aquifer levels around an oil terminal situated in Constanta city is investigated by using Schlumberger's soil electrical resistivity measurement method. The structure of the area, containing unconsolidated sediments with resistivity values ranging from about 10 to less than 100 Ω × m, has been obtained by previous drilling boreholes. On the base of electrical resistivity tomography measurements and of the calculated rocks' resistivity and drilling data, maps of rocks' resistivity was created and resistivity intervals characteristic for polluted aquifer underground areas were determined. The obtained results were compared with the results obtained in 2001-2003 in order to highlight the evolution of pollution inside and outside of the oil terminal.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(3):90-96
COMPUTATIONAL TOXICITY EVALUATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES
COMPUTATIONAL TOXICITY EVALUATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES

Alina-Maria Petrescu
West University of Timisoara, Faculty of Chemistry, Biology, Geography, Dept. of Biology-Chemistry, Timisoara, Romania
Gheorghe Ilia
Institute of Chemistry Timisoara of Romanian Academy, Timisoara, Romania

Pesticides are broad-spectrum compounds used against insect, arthropod, other pest and fungi that are highly toxic to humans by different routes of exposures, such as dermal absorption, ingestion or inhalation. Fungicides are a group of pesticides used in agriculture to control plant diseases caused by fungal attack. As a result of their relative persistence, fungicides residues present in water, food, animals etc., represent a risk for human health. Due to their widespread presence and toxicity, an environmental monitoring is required to protect the public from possible organic toxins released into the air, soil, and water. All these aspect have originated the need to develop toxicity methodologies, structured-toxicity relationships and biological activity.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(3):97-102
INFLUENCE OF RADIOACTIVITY PRESENT IN ASH FROM THERMAL POWER PLANT PAROSENI ON PLANT DEVELOPMENT
INFLUENCE OF RADIOACTIVITY PRESENT IN ASH FROM THERMAL POWER PLANT PAROSENI ON PLANT DEVELOPMENT

Dorin Tataru, Andreea C. Stanci
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering and Transports, University of Petrosani, Petrosani, Romania
Aurora Stanci
Departament of Management, Environmental Engineering and Geology, University of Petrosani, Petrosani, Romania
Sorin M. Radu
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering and Transports, University of Petrosani, Petrosani, Romania

Paroseni Thermal Power Plant provides electricity and heat and works with coal as fuel base. After burning coal from the power thermal plants results in a high quantity of slag and ash, a part of the ash fraught chimneys is dispersed directly in the atmosphere, and the rest is transported hydraulically to ash ponds. Slag and ash from coal combustion from the Thermal Power Plant Paroseni, is transported hydraulically to the Caprisoara pond. The coal used in the combustion contains a significant quantity of radioactive elements from the ore. Radioactive elements contained in coal will not burn, they accumulate in slag and ash. The radioactivity, due to the burning of coal and discharged in ash, is a major problem in the development of vegetation. Revegetation of ash ponds resulting from technological process, requires a study of plant development in the presence of radioactivity from ash. In this paper, our scope is, to study the behavior of plants used for revegetation process of ash ponds in the presence of ionizing radiation.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(3):103-114
VARIATION OF SPRINKLER IRRIGATION IN RELATION TO WATER INFILTRATION AND DISTRIBUTION IN SOILS OF WESTERN OF ROMANIA
VARIATION OF SPRINKLER IRRIGATION IN RELATION TO WATER INFILTRATION AND DISTRIBUTION IN SOILS OF WESTERN OF ROMANIA

Nicusor Boja, Florinel Boja
Faculty of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Informatics, “Vasile Goldiş” Western University of Arad, Arad, Romania
Alin Teuşdea
Faculty of Environmental Protection, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania
C. Maior, P. A. Darau
Faculty of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Informatics, “Vasile Goldiş” Western University of Arad, Arad, Romania

This study reports the development and testing of a model which relates yield to irrigation amount and uniformity. Required input data are the Christiansen uniformity coefficient (CUC) and a parameter describing the sensitivity of crop yield to water deficits obtained from empirical relationships between evapotranspiration and crop yield. The model was used to determine optimum irrigation amounts for forestry nursery under sprinkler irrigation in soils of western Romanian. The research was carried out in the Iarac forestry nursery in the Iuliu Moldovan Forest District during 2012-2014, on an alluvial soil (the vertical-gleyed subtype). The placement of the sample markets was carried out according to the “divided parcels method” in two repetitions, and the surface of a parcel was 450 m2. At the time when the measurements were taken, the meteorological conditions were: temperature of 23oC; wind speed of 1.5 m s-1; total nebulosity 3; and relative humidity 47. The paper work displays the results obtained after the sprinkler irrigation, when we determined the quantity of water spread by the 6 sprinklers on a 15 m-radius, placed on the direction of the cardinal points and values of water infiltration after 24 hours by sprinkler irrigation. The purpose of this research is to emphasize the variation of the water infiltration after sprinkler irrigation correlated with the uniformity coefficient (Cristiansen) and the soil granulometry of the experimental field. This correlation is important, because the soil moisture values measured at a certain time frame after irrigation consists in an important parameter for the optimal amount of water supplied per unit area assessments. The results show that the optimum irrigation amount depends on irrigation uniformity, and on agronomic and physical properties of soil.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(3):115-120
VARIATION OF SPRINKLER IRRIGATION IN RELATION TO WATER INFILTRATION AND DISTRIBUTION IN SOILS OF WESTERN OF ROMANIA
VARIATION OF SPRINKLER IRRIGATION IN RELATION TO WATER INFILTRATION AND DISTRIBUTION IN SOILS OF WESTERN OF ROMANIA

Izabella Corabian, Vasile F. Soporan, Alin L. Pop, Bianca Soporan
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

The paper aims to determine the impact that material degradability has on the environment by estimating the duration of their non-functional existence. Starting from a classification system of municipal waste in terms of natural degradability and from generated quantities, we will calculate the footprint, “the legacy” left by a man during his lifetime and the duration of its existence. At the same time, the paper shows the impact on the environment, by estimating the level of emissions generated by easily degradable waste. Based on the results, the reasoning we develop in this paper emphasizes the relevance of circular economy in the context of current developments.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(3):121-126
TIMISOARA CITY - STUDY ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ASPECTS
TIMISOARA CITY - STUDY ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ASPECTS

Maria R. Gridan, Adrian Alionescu, Viorica David
Politehnica University Timisoara, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Terrestrial Communication Ways, Foundations and Cadastre, Timisoara, Romania

Until recently the human main occupation consisted in obtaining material benefits, regardless of the used means and their effects on the environment. With the rapid urbanization as a result of unprecedented industrialization in the second half of the twentieth century, the process of continuous development is more closely investigated. The notion, sustainable development proposes the awareness of our actions effects on the environment which in the future will affect us too and it also provides methods through which human activities will not harm nature. Because sustainability is a concept so vast, sometimes too many different problems are put under the umbrella of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy, removing attention from the real non-sustainable development directions. This strategy’ stated goal is to act for continuous improvement of life quality both for present and future. But this can only be achieved in communities capable of using resources wisely and efficiently and discovering their ecological potential of the economy, ensuring prosperity, environmental protection and social cohesion. As a community to be truly sustainable must adopt an approach that takes into account three main directions: economic, environment and cultural resources. This paper aims to present how the sustainable development was applied in Timisoara City.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(3):127-134
3D MODELING OF LANDSLIDES IN RELATION WITH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
3D MODELING OF LANDSLIDES IN RELATION WITH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

Georgiana Rusu, Cosmin Muşat, Radu Teşilă
Department of Land Measurements and Cadastre, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Politehnica University Timisoara, Timisoara, Romania

Threats to our environment represent a clear danger in the context of climate change, which is part of the “Global Change”, and it is obvious that action is needed right now to protect our quality of life, particularly for those most vulnerable to health threats from environmental and technological disasters. Therefore, our top priority should be to avoid human and material losses. Natural hazards involve the intersection of society, the built environment and natural processes. The security area is not only defined by hazard management, but by a wide variety of events that could affect the environment and the population’s health. Romania is affected by different types of hazards, having one of the most seismically active area in Europe, it presents a relatively high potential of seismic risk mainly due to the subcrustal earthquakes located in the South-eastern Carpathians. Also, a great accent is placed on the study of those factors that place some areas in categories with high risk for natural and anthropic hazard such as landslides. Geodetic methods provide facilities to investigate movements that are consequences of hazards and integrate this data to other disciplines. With the rapid developments of geodetic techniques and the accuracy and reliability in geodetic measurements, the surveying methods have gained importance for displacements monitoring on landslide researches. The present paper shows its level of topicality by bringing forward the advantages of using state-of-the-art geodetic technology and specialized software in the study of landslides with a view of generating 3D models of the affected area. The 3D modeling process included tasks such as observation, research and modeling of the landslide into a 3D model representation based on triangulation. The interdisciplinary approach (implying surveying and civil engineering as well as architecture) implemented by the authors generate 2 surface models of the same landslide using specialized software in order to compare them.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(3):135-146
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MUDDY MATERIAL CARRIED BY FORESTRY/AGRICULTURE TIRES ON THE PUBLIC ROAD
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MUDDY MATERIAL CARRIED BY FORESTRY/AGRICULTURE TIRES ON THE PUBLIC ROAD

Constantin A. Bratu, Valentina Ciobanu, Catalina Antoniade Roman
Department of Forest Management and Engineering, Forest Management and Land Measurement, Faculty of Silviculture and Forest Engineering, Transilvania University of Braşov, Braşov, Romania

Traffic safety in the area of intersections between forest roads and public roads (with modern superstructure) is influenced by the characteristics of the muddy material carried by the forest-vehicle tires to the surface of the public road. This is due to the rifts shaped as relatively big prominences, displayed by the forest vehicle tires. In this way, the muddy material is taken from the surface of the forest roads and is “carried” on national or county roads. The mud layer deposited on modern roads is a real danger to the vehicles travelling at legal speed. On the other hand, the sediments of dirt and mud (a lot of debris) trucked onto a national road by a forest vehicle are dangerous pollutants of water and air. So, forest vehicle tires can carry onto highway surface: petroleum products, metals, chemicals, pesticides, organic products and bacteria. They can cause or aggravate a variety of respiratory diseases: asthma, emphysema or lung cancer. This paper sets out to present in what way the quantity of muddy material carried by forestry vehicles is influenced by the humidity, by the quantity of levigable parts, by the humus content of the road material on the carriageway surface of the forestry roads and by travelling velocity in the junction area between forestry road – national road.


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