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PRIMA PAGINĂ ECOTERRA NUMĂRUL 12(4)/2015


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(4):1-7
EVOLUTIONARY DETAILS OF ANTHOCYANIN-COLORING FORMATION OF COROLLA OF FLOWERING PLANTS
EVOLUTIONARY DETAILS OF ANTHOCYANIN-COLORING FORMATION OF COROLLA OF FLOWERING PLANTS

Irina Kolomiets
Institute of Ecology and Geography, Academy of Sciences of Republic of Moldova, Chişinău, Republic of Moldova

The assumption about the connection of species evolutionary advancement with the flowering period and corolla anthocyanin and white coloring was checked on 85 species of concrete flora of the city of Chisinau and 147 species of potential flora of Moldova. It was established that with flowering period increase the families evolutionary advancement increases, the proportion of species with white and violet-blue corolla decreases, while the proportion of species with rose-purple corolla increases.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(4):8-12
CYCLING AND WALKING TO SCHOOL. A CASE STUDY FOR BRASOV, ROMANIA
CYCLING AND WALKING TO SCHOOL. A CASE STUDY FOR BRASOV, ROMANIA

Venetia Sandu
Transilvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brasov, Romania

The paper investigates the transportation modes of high school students to school in Brasov city and the attitude towards cycling and walking. A questionnaire was designed and filled in by 492 respondents, examining the influencing factors on active travel modes. The obstacles against cycling to school are sedentarism, too long distances from home, the feeling of insecurity and lack of appropriate facilities; similarly, the obstacles to walking to school for those respondents living at less than 30 minutes far from school are sedentarism and lack of time. The conclusions drawn revealed the high potential of changing attitudes of high school students towards less pollutant means of transportation, from actual 3% of respondents who are cycling and walking to school to maximum predicted 73%, indicating also the need for coherent local policies in terms of health education and promotion of cycling.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(4):13-18
PRELIMINARY RESULTS REGARDING THE RISK OF LUNG CANCER CAUSED BY RADON EXPOSURE IN ALBA IULIA AND SURROUNDINGS
PRELIMINARY RESULTS REGARDING THE RISK OF LUNG CANCER CAUSED BY RADON EXPOSURE IN ALBA IULIA AND SURROUNDINGS

Viorica Vogth (Tecșa), Bety Burghele, Alexandra Cucoș
Environmental Radioactivity and Nuclear Dating Center, Babeș-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Dorin Iancu
National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control, Bucharest, Romania
Constantin Cosma
Environmental Radioactivity and Nuclear Dating Center, Babeș-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Ionut T. Moraru
Faculty of Chemistry and Chemistry Engineering, Babeș-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Evanghelos Giagias
Environmental Radioactivity and Nuclear Dating Center, Babeș-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Radon is one of the most studied of environmental carcinogens. Radon in homes require special attention, because both the individual doses and from its progeny can influence human health. In this study it was determined the concentration of radon during winter of 25 homes in Alba Iulia and  surroundings by placing CR-39 trace detectors. The aim of this study is to identify high concentrations of radon in homes to determine the risk of producing lung cancer. After the measurements we obtained a mean annual radon concentration of 154 Bq/m3, the mean annual dose of 4.05 mSv/year and the relative risk of lung cancer ranging from 1.03 to 1.61.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(4):19-25
EVALUATION AND IMPACT OF NOISE POLLUTION CAUSED BY TURBOJET ENGINES ON PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT
EVALUATION AND IMPACT OF NOISE POLLUTION CAUSED BY TURBOJET ENGINES ON PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT

Sebastian Marian Zaharia
Faculty of Technological Engineering and Industrial Management, Transilvania University of Brasov, Brasov, Romania

The functioning of turbojet engines determines the sounds effect that presents a serious problem because of the intensity of both ecological and order constructive danger posed by fatigue acoustic integrity of the aircraft. Noise is one of the important parameters to be taken into account in the design of aircraft, so limiting noise with all the consequences became a indisputable necessity. In this paper we analyzed noise turbojet engines and the primary factor behind the noise. In the case study we have implemented accelerated acoustic fatigue testing techniques of turbojet engine nacelles, following to determine the main characteristics of reliability and quality.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(4):26-31
INFLUENCE OF POULTRY MANURE AND UNIVERSAL PEAT ON THE BIOREMEDIATION OF SOIL CONTAMINATED WITH DIESEL FUEL
INFLUENCE OF POULTRY MANURE AND UNIVERSAL PEAT ON THE BIOREMEDIATION OF SOIL CONTAMINATED WITH DIESEL FUEL

Andreea Coste (Bână)
Medago SRL, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Ioana M. Sur
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Department of Environment Engineering and Entrepreneurship of Sustainable Development, Cluj-Napoca, RomaniaTechnical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Department of Environment Engineering and Entrepreneurship of Sustainable Development, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Soil contamination with petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel fuel) is a worldwide problem. Polluted areas require application of depollution/remediation methods. In this paper are presented results of laboratory experiments in which was studied the bioremediation of a soil polluted with diesel fuel, by using manure from poultry. At the same time it was also made a comparison of the treatment efficiency if you also add universal peat. After analyzes it was observed a 67% treatment efficiency for soil samples treated with poultry manure and peat. Treatment yield was 3 percent smaller for samples treated only with manure. Through this experiment we concluded that remediation of soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons can be achieved through efficient use of manure.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(4):32-37
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT IN SOIL SAMPLES FROM COPSA MICA AREA
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT IN SOIL SAMPLES FROM COPSA MICA AREA

Daniela Ciorba, Emese Szakacs
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Babeş-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Historical pollution with carbon black, heavy metals and especially with lead of Copşa Mică are very well known. The effect of extractable toxic contaminants on Selenastrum capricornutum has been assessed for soil samples taken from different urban area. At the same time, the toxicity has been observed after UV irradiation of soil elutriate. All samples was analyzed for two different time period: November 2014 and March 2015. The paper shows the advantage of irradiation method in impact assessment, when are used complementary with the growth inhibition test of green algae, OECD recommendation.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(4):38-44
ANNUAL AND SEASONAL AIR TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION TRENDS IN THE NORTH OF THE APUSENI MOUNTAINS
ANNUAL AND SEASONAL AIR TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION TRENDS IN THE NORTH OF THE APUSENI MOUNTAINS

Viorel Arghiuş, Liviu Muntean
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Babeş-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Corina Arghiuş
Gh. Lazăr National Pedagogical College, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Gheorghe Roşian, Radu Mihăiescu, Nicolae Baciu, Cristian Maloş, Vlad Măcicăşan
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Babeş-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

This paper is focused on analyzing trends and variability in the time series of air mean temperatures and precipitation amounts at two representative meteorological stations (Băişoara and Vlădeasa 1800) located in the northern part of the Apuseni Mountains, using MAKESENS application (Mann-Kendall test for trend and Sen’s slope estimator). The time series cover a relevant period of 54 years (1961-2014). The main results suggest an increase of mean air temperature, typical for summer, being consistent with the current global warming. The trends in precipitation are statistically insignificant, being positive in low and medium mountains areas and negative at high altitudes. According to the IPCC projections and predictions, a similar temperature and precipitation pattern trend is expected in the future in the study region. Also, an increase in extreme events (e.g. heavy rainfall) is expected. In this context, adaptation to climate change should be an important element of national, regional and local policies.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(4):45-58
INTEGRATION OF STOCHASTIC METHODS IN THE ASSESSMENT OF THE RISK GENERATING PHENOMENA. STUDY CASE - TăRNICIOARA TAILINGS POND, ROMANIA
INTEGRATION OF STOCHASTIC METHODS IN THE ASSESSMENT OF THE RISK GENERATING PHENOMENA. STUDY CASE - TăRNICIOARA TAILINGS POND, ROMANIA

Diana Banu
Faculty of Geology and Geophysics, University of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania
Sorin Mihai
Research and Development National Institute for Metals and Radioactive Resources, Bucharest, Romania

This paper presents an acquisition methodology of the geological, geotechnical and hydrogeological data through direct and indirect methods, such as drillings and electrical tomography. Data from geophysical investigations and laboratory tests together with the data recorded by the existing monitoring system were used in numerical and analytical models to assess the stability of the tailings dam Tărnicioara during the closure. This paper focuses on the integration of the Monte Carlo method coupled with limit equilibrium method and on the point estimation method coupled with finite element method. The modeling methodology applied in the study focused on 3 cases: assessing the tailings dam safety state by applying analytic modeling, setting the warning and alarm benchmark in respect to water level oscillation recorded by the monitoring network and modeling the risk of tailings liquefaction due to earthquake loading.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(4):59-66
CHARACTERIZATION OF SILICON SOLAR CELLS BY NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS USING AFORS – HET PROGRAM
CHARACTERIZATION OF SILICON SOLAR CELLS BY NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS USING AFORS – HET PROGRAM

Laura Hroștea
Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Atmosphere Optics, Spectroscopy and Lasers Laboratory, Iasi, Romania

The solar energy has became one of the most promising alternatives for classical sources based on fossil fuels and represents a beneficial option in the global energy crisis, being an actual priority in world energy development. Considering all the non-conventional energy sources, of ecologic and renewable energy, the solar energy is considered the most important, being also inexhaustible. The direct conversion of solar energy in electric energy is possible using the photovoltaic devices, especially solar cells, working of which is based on photoelectric effect. AFORS–HET is a freely available numerical program used for heterojunction solar cells simulation. AFORS–HET is a shortly name for 'automatic for simulation of heterostructures' and uses different ambient condition (temperature) and calculation modes to simulate the solar cell structure and measurements. Some of the most important parameters of silicon solar cells, derived from current–voltage characteristics, such as open circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, fill factor, efficiency,  photoelectroluminescence, the quantum efficiency, transient photoelectroluminescence, impedance, voltage dependence of surface photovoltage, can be determined by AFORS–HET, also providing us information about the incident photon beams.  


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(4):67-74
METHODS USING PLANTS TO CLEAN THE SOILS THAT ARE POLLUTED WITH HEAVY METALS
METHODS USING PLANTS TO CLEAN THE SOILS THAT ARE POLLUTED WITH HEAVY METALS

Erika M. Almasan, Valer Micle, Melania Boros, Nada Joger
Faculty of Environmental and Materials Engineering, Technical University from Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

The soil contamination with heavy metals is a major worldwide issue as a result of mining processes, car industry, glass and paper industry, non-compliant waste dumps and heavy car traffic. This study will focus on the main polluted areas with heavy metals from Romania as well as the maximum permited limits of heavy metals in soils. We will describe the methods of using plants to clean the soils that are polluted with heavy metals, examples of plants that can be used, as well as the phytotoxicity tests used to determine the influence of heavy metals on plants. Another topic will focus on presenting the areas where soil decontamination using plants was applied on national as well as international scale.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(4):75-81
DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED METHODOLOGY FOR THE IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURES AT LOCAL LEVEL AND ASSOCIATED RISK ASSESSMENT
DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED METHODOLOGY FOR THE IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURES AT LOCAL LEVEL AND ASSOCIATED RISK ASSESSMENT

Andrei Radovici, Liviu Muntean, Alexandru Ozunu
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Babeş-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

The purpose of this paper is to lay the foundations of a methodology for the identification, classification and management of critical infrastructures to a much narrower range than they were previously defined in the literature and legislation. Still, the proposed methodology can be applied to all levels of administrative organization. These actions can help local decision makers, to jointly develop actions and strategies to support sustainable development and to improve the general level of security. In order to achieve these objectives, the critical infrastructures will be identified deductively, starting from the sectors of activity present in the studied area and classified on the basis of their dependence. In the final phase of the management process it is required to elaborate risk assessment for the critical infrastructures previously classified, in order to maximize the benefits/cost ratio.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(4):82-89
THE POTENTIAL OF FIELD PRACTICAL TRAINING IN DEVELOPING PROFESSIONAL SKILLS FOR THE STUDENTS OF THE FACULTY OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, BABES-BOLYAI UNIVERSITY, CLUJ-NAPOCA
THE POTENTIAL OF FIELD PRACTICAL TRAINING IN DEVELOPING PROFESSIONAL SKILLS FOR THE STUDENTS OF THE FACULTY OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, BABES-BOLYAI UNIVERSITY, CLUJ-NAPOCA

Nicoleta Bican-Brișan, Liviu Muntean, Kinga Reti, Gheorghe Roșian, Vlad Măcicășan
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Babeş-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

The field practical training, together with the internship programs, represent a compulsory requirement for the students of the Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Babeș-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, thus constituting a major practical training element of the study curricula within this faculty. Moreover, practical training programs are part of the study plans of all fields of competence within the Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering. Their major goal consists in extending the students’ skills according to the objectives of their professional education in a certain field of competence. Particularly, in the field practical training, the environmental realities, which are directly visualized, expose the student to various patterns of thinking and analysis, based on the theoretical knowledge acquired in the classroom, thus creating the prospects for the student’s practical skills development. The topics and the thematic objectives that support the development of such field-based skills are addressed in the present paper.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(4):90-94
RADIONUCLIDES (137CS) PHYTOEXTRACTION POSSIBILITIES WITHIN THE SOIL USING GRASS CROPS (LOLIUM PERENNE L., HORDEUM DISTICHUM L.)
RADIONUCLIDES (137CS) PHYTOEXTRACTION POSSIBILITIES WITHIN THE SOIL USING GRASS CROPS (LOLIUM PERENNE L., HORDEUM DISTICHUM L.)

Alexandru Lupulescu, Dana Malschi, Constantin Cosma
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Babeş-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

This paperwork aims to highlight the potential of radionuclides phytoextraction from contaminated soil with radioactive caesium. It was choosen two different species for plantation: Lolium perenne L. and Hordeum distichum L.. Both had been sowing and grown in laboratory conditions, two sets of cultivation, to obtain samples (vegetal material: leaves and strains), sample preparation and analysis. Following the analysis performed in laboratory with the help of a multichannel spectrometer, it has been found that the species L. perenne extrated more radionuclides of caesium not only in the first series but in the second as well, than the other species of H. distichum. Following this experiment was found that L. pernene tissues concentrated an amount of 102.2 Bq Kg-1 137Cs in the first stage and 35.9 Bq Kg-1 in the second stage of harvest. In the H. distichum case it was found 25.95 Bq Kg-1 in phase one and 17.78 Bq Kg-1 in second phase. To highlight soil contamination through the accumulation in plant tissues, it has been harvested and analyzed four other species of herbage from Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering park, in which has been found little amount of caesium in plants and even below the detection limit of the device.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(4):95-106
PASSIVE SYSTEMS FOR NEUTRALIZING THE ACID WATERS BY USING LIMESTONE
PASSIVE SYSTEMS FOR NEUTRALIZING THE ACID WATERS BY USING LIMESTONE

Ioan D. Brăhaița, Călin Baciu, Adina L. Lazăr, Ioan C. Pop, Roxana M. Truță
Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

In areas with current or previous mining activity, acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment represents a challenge for the engineers and environmental specialists. Due to very low pH, acidic waters mobilize heavy metals found in ore and rocks, transporting them along watercourses. Our study proposes a passive mine water treatment technology using limestone. Therefore, for the laboratory experiment, three water samples were used: an acidified water sample (distilled water + HNO3), a water sample taken from Adit 714 (Rosia Montana mining area), and a water sample taken from a tailings storage facility (TSF) (Baia Mare mining area). Two treatment systems have been proposed, in closed and in open conditions, respectively. The results have shown a higher pH value in case of the acidified water sample in comparison with the other two water samples. Also the pH from the tailings water sample increased more than the pH from the Rosia Montana water sample. Comparing the two systems, the best results were given by the open system in case of the water sample taken from the TSF and acidified water. The closed system was more efficient for Rosia Montana sample.


Ecoterra, 2015, 12(4):107-117
REMARKABLE EVENTS THAT HAVE DETERMINED MODIFICATIONS IN PALEOCLIMATE CONDITIONS
REMARKABLE EVENTS THAT HAVE DETERMINED MODIFICATIONS IN PALEOCLIMATE CONDITIONS

Dan Constantinescu, Beatrice A. Cârlan, Alexandra Brînzan
University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Bucharest, Romania

Since the beginning of the human evolution, the climate and environment were influencing the social, economic, cultural and military activities. The human evolution was considerable affected by the climate changes from Pliocene and Pleistocene, as a result of the complex natural events. Paleoclimate represents the Earth geological past climate. It was indirect studied on the basis of ice distribution and composition, plants and animals fossils or relief characteristics. The study of the paleoclimate is an assessment and analysis source for the actual climate situation and for possible prognosis of the future climate evolution. The climate modifications were more intensive on high latitudes. Consequently, it was chosen the subpolar ecologic system to realize a complex analysis of the climate changes. In this context, it was studied the special literature, wherefrom there were studied and adopted some theories and mathematical models, which were correlated with stochastic and experimental data obtained on the field, in order to find a modality to explain the global climate changes.


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