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PRIMA PAGINĂ ECOTERRA NUMĂRUL 13(1)/2016


Ecoterra, 2016, 13(1):1-6
ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF GHERLA WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT
EFICIENTA ENERGETICA A STATIEI DE EPURARE A APELOR UZATE GHERLA

Marius D. Roman
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Building Services Engineering Department, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Energy consumption in the treatment plants represents a significant operating cost, about 15 to 30% for large capacity treatment plants and between 30 to 40% for small plants. Energy costs used for the operation of these goals are constantly growing due to the increasing fuel costs and the stringent discharge requirements for treated water into the environment, leading to the use of a process with a high energy consumption. Regarding the electricity consumption can vary between 0.2 and 1.2 kWh/m3 of treated water discharged due to the treatment technology chosen and the degree of treatment required.


Ecoterra, 2016, 13(1):7-13
PALEO DISCHARGE OF MUREş RIVER IN THE LOWLAND AREA
PALEO DESCARCAREA RAULUI MURES IN CURSUL INFERIOR

Fabian Timofte, Alexandru Onaca
Department of Geography, Faculty of Chemistry, Biology, Geography, West University of Timişoara, Timişoara, Romania

Mureş River left behind many traces on its alluvial fan located in the south-eastern part of the Pannonian Basin. The analysed sector (Lipova-Nădlac) is one of the most dynamic sectors in the lowland section of this river. Mapping 2D shape of these micro-scale landforms, the bankfull discharge of the channel during the given time periods was calculated. The amount of paleo discharge constantly increased from the older meanders generation (557 m3 s-1) to the XXth century (1018 m3 s-1). The results of the discharge values obtained for the last century by applying the local equations are quite close to the amount of present-day bankfull discharge (850 m3 s-1).


Ecotera, 2016, 13(1):14-16
THE BIOGAS PRODUCTION INTO THE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF ENERGY
BIOGAZUL PRODUS IN STATIILE DE EPURARE ALE APELOR UZATE CA SURSA ALTERNATIVA DE ENERGIE

Cornel Sava, Elena M. Pică, Marius D. Roman
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Building Services Engineering Department, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

The current paper proposes a presentation of the advantages obtained through the construction of intake biogas equipment as a result of sludge organic matter fermentation in the wastewater treatment plants. The second section of the paper contains information about the biogas production in a wastewater treatment plant of 35.000 population equivalents, analysis and determination. The final section of the paper presents the direct proceeding of environment protection by the intake and usage of the biogas, thus avoiding its release into the atmosphere.


Ecoterra, 2016, 13(1):17-29
A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF EX-SITU BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES OF HYDROCARBON POLLUTED SOILS
O ANALIZA CRITICA A TEHNOLOGIILOR DE BIOREMEDIERE EX-SITU A SOLURILOR POLUATE CU HIDROCARBURI

Carmen Cristorean, Valer Micle, Ioana M. Sur
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Department of Environment Engineering and Entrepreneurship of Sustainable Development, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Hydrocarbon contamination represents an important environmental issue due to the large number of polluted sites. This type of pollution is a serious threat to human health, causes economic loss and organic pollution of ground water which limits its use, environmental problems and decreases the agricultural productivity of the soil. Therefore remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils represents a necessity. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils has gained attention in recent decades mainly due to the lower costs of its application and very low environmental impact. Biological remediation technologies utilize the ability of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi) to degrade organic matter and create optimal conditions for an accelerated degradation. Ex situ bioremediation technologies such as biopile, bioreactors, composting and landfarming have been successfully used in the treatment of hydrocarbon contaminated soils. This study provides a critical perspective of the ex situ bioremediation techniques and explores strategies to improve their performances and treatment time. The principle, applicability, advantages, limitation and concerns, efficiency and costs of each technique are evaluated and discussed.


Ecoterra, 2016, 13(1):30-39
HEAVY METALS ASSESSMENT IN STREET DUST AND SOIL OF BOTOSANI CITY, ROMANIA
EVALUAREA METALELOR GRELE DIN PRAFUL STRADAL SI DIN SOLUL ORASULUI BOTOSANI, ROMANIA

Paul C. Vereştiuc, Oana M. Tucaliuc
Al. I. Cuza university of Iasi, Faculty of Geography and Geology, Iasi, Romania

In urban areas, increased human activities generate toxic heavy metals emissions that contaminate the environment and affect human health. Street dust and soils nearby the streets receive metals especially from road traffic. A total of 50 samples of street dust and soil were collected from Botosani city during one sampling campaign. The samples were categorized according to the urban function of space: gas stations, industry, commercial parking lots, intersections, green areas and municipal waste deposit. Samples were analyzed using flame absorption spectrometry for Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb and Ni detection. Results of the street dust samples showed more elevated values of metals than in urban soil, indicating that road traffic is one of the main source responsible for heavy metals emissions in the city. For both types of samples, the concentrations of Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu and Zn exceeded the maximum allowed limit established by the Romanian authorities. For street dust samples, the categories which were identified with the highest concentrations of metals were the industrial area, intersections and institutions. For soil samples, the highest metal concentrations were detected in the following categories: industry, institutional areas, parking lots of commercial areas and green areas.


Ecoterra, 2016, 13(1):40-49
ASPECTS LINKED TO THE INFLUENCE OF URBANISATION AND GLOBAL WARMING UPON BIRDS BEHAVIOUR
ASPECTE LEGATE DE INFLUENTA URBANIZARII SI A INCALZIRII GLOBALE ASUPRA PASARILOR

Laszlo Berkesy
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Babeş-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Corina M. Berkesy
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A., Bistrita, Romania
Claudiu Gavriloaie
S.C. Bioflux S.R.L., Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Urban spreading and some other anthropic actions were a particular challenge to many species of birds, in the sense of modifying their natural habitats. Apart that, noise pollution, light pollution, air contamination, traffic and the presence of man constitute a permanent challenge to the birds’ body and notably to their nervous system. The consequences of the natural habitats shrinkage, fragmentation or abolition and of the modifications in the structure of the vegetation areas from the urban regions were negative upon the species of birds with a lesser ability of adaptation to the new conditions; the said effects were less relevant in case of the species with a high physiological tolerance and of those that can easily adjust to the new conditions created. Some species of birds thus enjoyed the conditions provided by the new habitat, which was the case of most populations of birds living in urban areas. Climate factors vary for different species of birds; for example, at high latitude, temperature is the greatest climatic influence for many species. Climate, in fact, is perhaps the greatest factor in determining birds’ ranges and abundance. This work here sets out certain negative and positive sides of urbanisation and of other human activities that influence bird behaviour, as well as certain aspects linked to the influence of the climatic changes and of the weather conditions upon the behaviour and the abundance of the bird species.


Ecoterra, 2016, 13(1):50-56
MONITORING THE HOUSEHOLD WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS WITHIN THE SIERA SYSTEM
MONITORIZAREA PROCESULUI DE EPUARRE A APELOR UZATE DE TIP DOMESTIC PRIN SISTEMUL SIERA

Ioan M. Craciun, Vasile Ciuban, Daniela Ignat, Corina M. Berkesy, Grigore Vlad, Liviu Suciu
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A., Bistrita, Romania
Valer Turcin
ICPE Centru 5, Bucharest, Romania

The autonomous integrated system for treating household wastewaters while reusing water and sludge planned to mitigate the environmental impact by locally using the products resulted from the wastewater treatment, to enhance the treatment efficiency by using an innovating treatment technology and to use the green energy within the process. The integrated system is composed of a mechanical-biological wastewater treatment plant with active sludge and biological ponds, of a green energy catching and storing station and of a glasshouse. This paper aims at assessing the system efficiency by monitoring its quality and energetic parameters. The outcomes of the SIERA system implementation show a 100 % sludge reutilisation degree, a 30 to 70% water reutilisation degree, a more than 97% efficiency of treating wastewaters in case of nitrogen products and a reduction in the consumption of electrical power from the national system of 50 to 90%.


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