Ecoterra, No. 14, pp. 6-7, 2007
Dacinia Crina PETRESCU
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Business
Abstract: The paper begins with a general definition of the negotiation. Then the commercial negotiations are presented. The environmental negotiations are highlighted and connected to the sustainable development. The paper end with the presentation of several books, web pages etc (Romanian and foreign) dedicated to the environmental negotiations.
Key words: negotiation, sustainable development, environment
Ecoterra, No. 14, p. 11, 2007
Ioan Valentin PETRESCU-MAG
Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Cluj-Napoca
Abstract: Environmental education emerged in the 1970’s in a few international conferences, housed by developed countries. Today, it is discussed in the context and perspective of sustenable development of the society. The term and its meaning was formuled in the UNESCO Conference from Tbilisi (1977), environmental education evolving with Treaty of Maastricht, International Summit of Göteborg, Cardiff Process, Brundtland Report and so forth.
Key words: environment, education, sustainable development, international treaties
Ecoterra, No. 14, pp. 12-13, 2007
Iovanca HAIDUC, Carmen ROBA, Carmen ILEA
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa Mediului
Abstract: Ocean acidification is the name given to the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by their uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Between 1751 and 2004 surface ocean pH is estimated to have decreased from approximately 8.25 to 8.14 (a change of -0.11 pH units). When CO2 dissolves, it reacts with water to form a balance of ionic and non-ionic chemical species: dissolved free carbon dioxide (CO2 (aq)), carbonic acid (H2CO3), bicarbonate (HCO3-) and carbonate (CO32-). The ratio of these species depends on factors such as seawater temperature and alkalinity. Current episode of acidification is taking place more rapidly than anything that has transpired in the past, leaving oceanic species no time to adapt. Ocean acidification could change the ocean ecosystem, driving our marine food to extinction.
Key words: carbon dioxide, atmosphere, seawater, ecosystem
Ecoterra, No. 14, pp. 14-15, 2007
Liceul Teoretic “Onisifor Ghibu”,Cluj-Napoca
Abstract: REACH enter into force on June 1st, 2007. Enterprises which manufacture or import more than one tonne of a chemical substance per year will be required to register it in a central database administered by the new EU Chemicals Agency (ECHA). The Agency will provide IT tools and guidance and Member States will offer assistance to the impacted companies. REACH will help monitor environmental impact of the chemicals.
Key words: REACH, chemical substances, environment, impact
Ecoterra, No. 14, pp. 16-17, 2007
Claudiu GAVRILOAIE, Maria Someşan
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.
Abstract: Bioindicators are organisms that are used to monitor the health of the environment. Fish have been used as water pollution bioindicators for many years, taking into acount their species diversity, numbers and health state. An important issue is the use of some fluorescent lines of zebrafish, obtained in laboratory, for detection of environmental pollutants.
Key words: bioindicator, environment quality, zebrafishes, pollutants
Ecoterra, No. 14, pp. 18-19, 2007
Institutul de Biologie al Academiei Române, Bucureşti
Horia Romeo ELEFTERESCU
U.S.A.M.V. Bucureşti, Facultatea de Medicină Veterinară
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.
Abstract: If we cross the southern part of Dobrogea, between Hârşova and Cernavodă, a typical dobrogean locality can be found on the shores of Danube. The village doesn’t have even a waste disposal so the domestic garbage is thrown away just near the vicinity of Drăgaica Hill. That is the reason why the neighbouring of Topalu are looking quit desolate, especially in the winter period. But as with any genuine treasure if we are patient and lucky enough and if we come at the right time (middle of April) we will be rewarded. The first clues that something valuable is hidden hear is that Drăgaica Hill is right at the border of two Natura 2000 sites: the Allah-Bair Capidava SPA (Special Protection Area according to CE 79/409/EEC Directive on the Conservation of Wild Birds) and the Canaralele Dunării SCI (Site of Community Importance according CE 92/43/EEC Directive on the Conservation of Natural Habitats of Wild Fauna and Flora). Another important protected area is the well-known Neojurasic Coral Reef from Topalu. So if we visit Topalu region in spring time, Drăgaica Hill and all its surroundings is full with colours, sounds and life. Here we can find rare and protected species like the Greek tortoise (Testudo graeca ibera), the European bee-eater (Merops apiaster), the European ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus), the common kingfisher (Alcedo atthis), the hoopoe (Upupa epops) and a lot of other protected animals and from April till July the vegetation is in a permanent change, new species of plants are flowering every week.
Key words: Topalu, nature conservation treaties, protected species, biodiversity
Ecoterra, No. 14, pp. 20-21, 2007
Petre OGRUŢAN, Csaba-Zoltan KERTESZ
Universitatea TRANSILVANIA Braşov
IFIN HH Bucureşti
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.
Abstract: This article describes the data transfer mode from Radon’s measurement tool, situated in different locations, to an Internet server from where they are available to users. When applied for measuring Radon in interiors (houses, public places and work places), the real-time system of communications will help completing the database reffering to the mapping of Radon’s risk area in Romania. One of the most useful characteristic of this tool is the possibility of measuring Radon from the seismic researches concure toward a correlation between the concentration of Radon within soil and water (from the seismic area) and the seismic movements.
Key words: radon, data transfer, seismic movements, measurement
Ecoterra, No. 14, pp. 22-23, 2007
Autoritatea Naţională de Reglementare în domeniul Energiei
Abstract: Romania was among the first new state members of the European Union which transposed into its national legislation the provisions of the Directive 2001/77/CE on promoting electricity produced from renewable energy sources (E-SRE), establishing 33% as the national target for the contribution of E-SRE to gross electricity consumption by 2010. In order to fulfill the national target a mandatory quota system combined with the trading of green certificates has been approved. This system in line with the principles of the competitive electricity markets, ensure the development of a parallel market of the green certificates whitch does not affect any way the physical electricity market operating, guarantees accomplishing the target assumed by obliging electricity suppliers to buy quotas of green certificates.
Key words: Romania, national legislation, electricity, renewable energy
Ecoterra, No. 14, p. 25, 2007
Florin Ştefan STOICA
Serviciul Hidrologie, Hidrogeologie şi Prognoze Bazinale, Apele Române, Cluj-Napoca
Abstract: As a result of the floods that occur every year in Romania, the total amount of damages rises to a estimated value 92 millions/year. Taking this into consideration it is obvious that we need to improve our capacity in order to manage and better understand this extreme phenomena.
Key words: DESWAT, floods, damages
Ecoterra, No. 14, pp. 26-27, 2007
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Extensia universitară Sf. Gheorghe
Abstract: The terms of “consumer society”, “waste deluge” and “waste crisis”, are some examples which permit to reflect the problems created by the untreatment of the waste, and the main confrontation it has in our environment. The present situation can be described by traditional collecting, treatment and storage of waste which is unsuitable in the Romanian low system and for the European Union either. So there are some projects in process for the decrease of the waste for the entire environment, where are clear definite what are the things that we should do. We all consumers are responsible for these problems and for each of us is necessarily that in the future to make the effort to manage the limited resources and to reduce the quantity of the waste. For the better treatment of this problem, there are a series of lows in Romania and European Union, which is important to be known by the consumers to, so they can take the necessarily steps in the waste treatment.
Key words: wastes, management, environment, legislation
Ecoterra, No. 14, pp. 28-29, 2007
INCDPM- ICIM Bucureşti
Abstract: The importance of a correct pollutant transport assessment in the groundwater is crucial when taking account of some major objectives connected to the protection of groundwater quality, such as: estimating the probable impact of contamination, developing efficient remediation techniques for the contaminated sites, establishing criteria for locating, designing and operating the landfills, etc. A rigorous set of interdisciplinary data concerning hydrogeological, physical-chemical and microbiological parameters, having in view the studied site scale/dimensions, is a condition of paramount importance before proceeding to the effective modeling. In order to be able to acquire these data it is often required to use state of the art sampling strategies and technologies and data processing sophisticated theories. In practice there appears a necessary compromise between the advanced theories, the current limitations in data obtaining and the economical constraints. Since the mathematical model is based on all these input data it results consequently that also the model should be adapted not only to the specific site conditions determinated by some basic parameter values, but also to the economical and time constraints. Generally speaking the contaminant transport through the groundwater is influenced by several aspects: the type of underground media (topsoil, capillary fringes, vadose zone, saturated zone, acquitard, acquiclude); the state of pollutant in the underground (free liquid, gaseous, dissolved, adsorbed, solid phase); the processes controlling the pollutant transportation in the underground such as: advection, dispersion due to mechanical dispersion and molecular diffusion, physical-chemical processes, microbiological processes; the physical-chemical properties of pollutant. A pollutant transportation through the groundwater mathematical model comprises mainly the groundwater circulation equation with the limit/boundary conditions and the pollutant advection-dispersion equation with their related limit conditions. When setting up a model it is important to calibrate it upon some characteristic parameters values of the site and then to make a sensitivity analysis. In general the above mentioned equations can only be solved approximately by using applied mathematics methods such as: finite differences method, finite elements method, boundary elements method etc.
Key words: ground water, pollutants, mathematical modelling
Ecoterra, No. 14, pp. 30-31, 2007
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţe Economice şi Gestiune a Afacerilor
Abstract: Protecting the environment is a duty of the current and future generation; making people aware as concerns the protection of environment is an aim of marketing. People have to know about the benefits offered by nature, but also about the damage caused in case the environment is neglected. Any carelessness may have negative effects on a short or long term. It is up to us what kind of inheritance we offer to the forthcoming generation.
Key words: environment, marketing, negative effects
Ecoterra, No. 14, pp. 32-33, 2007
Mihaela Crina CICEU
Agenţia pentru Protecţia Mediului, Bistriţa
Abstract: Biological monitoring or bio-monitoring, is the use of biological response to assess changes in the environment, generally changes due to anthropogenic causes. Bio-monitoring involves the use of indicators, indicator species or indicator communities. Generally algae are used. Algal growth is dependent on sunlight and nutrient concentrations. Moreover algae are sensitive to some pollutants at levels which may not visibly affect other organism in the short term or may affect other communities at higher concentrations.
Key words: bioindicators, algae, pollutants, water quality