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PRIMA PAGINĂ ECOTERRA NUMĂRUL 6(20)/2009


Ecoterra, No. 20, pp. 4-5, 2009
CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE BEHAVIOUR OF HIDROTECHNICAL CONSTRUCTIONS
CONSIDERAŢII PRIVIND MONITORIZAREA COMPORTĂRII CONSTRUCŢIILOR HIDROTEHNICE

Ioan CIASCAI
Universitatea Tehnică din Cluj-Napoca

Abstract: The monitoring of hidrotechnical constructions behaviour is imperative. In this activity many parameters are been monitorized, in order to provide a data base for construction safety analysis to the designer. Some of these parameters are measured for daily exploitation activity, as it is water level from accumulation lake, and other parameters are measured only to monitor the construction behaviour during its exploitation period.
Key words: hidrotechnical constructions, exploitation,  parameters, monitoring, water level


Ecoterra, No. 20, pp. 6-8, 2009
ENERGY FROM RENEWABLE SOURCES. AEOLIAN ENERGY
PRODUCEREA DE ENERGIE DIN SURSE REGENERABILE. ENERGIA EOLIANĂ ÎN ROMÂNIA

Cosmin BRICIU
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa Mediului

Abstract: Energy production from renewable energy sources, wind energy in Romania. The energy produced by wind seems to take a particular prominent place in energy players' investment plans. Romania has a wind power potential of 14,000 MW whereas currently only 10 MW has been installed. This leaves investors with a vast playing field and, according to Invest Romania, the announced wind energy projects amount to a total capacity of 10,000 MW. Indeed, the European Union has set a binding target of 20 % of its energy supply to come from wind and other renewable sources by 2020. In order to achieve this 20 % energy target, more than one-third of the European electrical demand would have to come from renewals, with wind power expected to deliver 12-14 %. These developments are in line with the authorities’ ambition to increase both energy security renewable energies usage, the country aims to generate 11 % of the domestic gross energy consumption from renewable resources by 2010. By promoting renewable energy resources (RES) and the expansion of the nuclear energy plant, the Romanian authorities aim to be energy self-sufficient by 2014.
Key words: wind turbines, investment, renewable energy sources, green certificates, Romania


Ecoterra, No. 20, pp. 9-11, 2009
BIOLOGICALLY INSPIRED DESIGN IN ARTIFICIAL VISION
DESIGN DE INSPIRAŢIE BIOLOGICĂ ÎN VIZUALIZARE ARTIFICIALĂ

Oana GUI
Universitatea de Artă şi Design Cluj-Napoca
Dan DUMITRESCU
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca

Abstract: The paper aims at drawing attention to the depth and breadth of biologically inspired design as practiced by scientists and engineers. It describes some characteristics of biological vision, common to all kind of animals that are worth being taken into consideration when designing an artificial vision system. It underlines the regions of interest use, method that significantly reduces the amount of information passed to subsequent processing layers and of its implementation as self organizing maps. We have applied this machine learning technique in our research on detecting and tracking differences in consecutively taken images.
Key words: region of interest, self organizing maps, artificial vision


Ecoterra, No. 20, pp. 12-13, 2009
ELECTRIC FIELDS PRODUCED BY POWER LINES
CÂMPUL ELECTRIC PRODUS DE LINIILE DE ÎNALTĂ TENSIUNE

Petre OGRUŢAN, Lia Elena ACIU
Universitatea TRANSILVANIA, Braşov
Liviu SUCIU
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.
Bogdan FERENC3
Florida State University, Center for Advanced Power Systems, Tallahassee, USA

Abstract: Whenever electricity is conducted through transmission lines, distribution lines or is used in appliances, they generate both electric and magnetic fields near the lines or appliances. The power frequency used is 50 or 60 Hz. Using  electrical energy has  become a part of everyday life. However, questions have been raised as to whether these electromagnetic fields are carcinogenic. This paper presents a method to use a portable spectrum analyser for electric field measurements. The experimental results obtained near the 440kV power lines are also presented.
Key words: electric fields, power lines, spectrum analysis


Ecoterra, No. 20, pp. 14-16, 2009
GREEN ENGINEERING. POWER SAVING AND RENEWABLE POWER GENERATION
INGINERIA ECOLOGICĂ. ECONOMIA DE ENERGIE ŞI ENERGII REGENERABILE

Bogdan FERENC
Florida State University, Center for Advanced Power Systems, Tallahassee,USA
Petre OGRUŢAN
Universitatea TRANSILVANIA
Liviu SUCIU
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.

Abstract: Green engineering is the use of measurement and control techniques to design, develop, and improve products, technologies, and processes for environmental and economic benefits. While there are many ways to group the green applications, most fall into the following five categories: 1. renewable power generation, 2. power quality, 3. environmental monitoring, 4. machine and process optimization, 5. development and test of green products and technologies.
Key words: green engineering, power saving, renewable power generation


Ecoterra, No. 20, pp. 17-19, 2009
ECOLOGICAL TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY CONTROLLER
CONTROLER ECOLOGIC DE TEMPERATURĂ ŞI UMIDITATE

Cristian FĂRCAŞ, Dan PITICĂ
Universitatea Tehnică din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Electronică, Telecomunicaţii şi Tehnologia Informaţiei

Abstract: This paper presents the practical implementation of an ecological temperature and relative humidity controller, developed around of a PIC18F458 microcontroller. In this controller, all the materials used are Lead-Free. The temperature and relative humidity control loops can be found in many types of applications (industrial applications, food industry, air conditioning etc). All loop components must be interconnected in order to obtain the temperature and relative humidity control loops that operates optimally. The control loops consists of the controlled system (the process), the temperature and RH sensors, the controller (2-point, P, PI, PID, etc) and the control element (the actuator). The temperature and relative humidity sensor used is a 4-20mA transmiter or a digital one.
Keywords: temperature controller, RH controller, control loop, Lead-Free


Ecoterra, No. 20, pp. 20-21, 2009
SETTLEMENT EXPANDING AND ENVIRONMENT SURVEY BY GEOINFORMATICAL METHODS
EXTINDEREA AŞEZĂRILOR ŞI MONITORIZAREA MEDIULUI PRIN METODE GEOINFORMATICE

Péter GYENIZSE, László NAGYVÁRADI
University of Pécs, Institute of Geography
Tibor ELEKES
University of Miskolc, Department of Geography

Abstract: This paper tries to explore the settlement development effects of certain natural conditions on Pécs city’s development, which is lying in SW-Hungary. We’ve made digital relief model from the local 1:25.000 scale topographic map by means of digital contour lines. We’ve added the slope angle-, aspect angle- and water distance layers to establish the relative weighted environmental quality map of Pécs with a settlement expanding expect, lying on natural conditions. Owing to the surveyed natural conditions the model can prognosticate, that the expanding of the city will be quicker in certain directions and slower in other ones. We have established five sectors marking the settlement-expanding in the near future. It can be said as a conclusion, that the areas marked by the model are really the most suitable terrains for constructions in Pécs city. However in certain places smaller or bigger deviations can be perceived between the expanding model and reality.
Key words: settlement expanding, natural conditions, environmental quality map


Ecoterra, No. 20, pp. 22-24, 2009
STUDY REGARDING THE POSSIBILITIES TO REUSE THE SLUDGE FROM THE URBAN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS
STUDIU PRIVIND POSIBILITĂŢILE DE VALORIFICARE A NĂMOLURILOR PROVENITE DIN STAŢIILE DE EPURARE ORĂŞENEŞTI

Corina BERKESY
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.
László BERKESY
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca
Claudiu GAVRILOAIE, Maria SOMEŞAN
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.

Abstract: The high rhythm of urbanization causes an increase of the wastewater quantities and some times an increase of the wastewater sludge resulted from the urban  wastewater treatments plants. Consequently there, appear more difficult problems to eliminte this kind of waste and to protect the environment. To bring the wastewater treatment as an ecological activity  it must be associated with the controlled recovery/storage activities for the sludge resulted from the process. The reintegration in the matter cycle in nature, for the specific case of the sludge resulted from the treated urban wastewater, there are more ways; from these the more practical one is the application on the soil, in agricultural practices. In this work, we show the qualitative level of the sludge from the urban treatment plants and its possible utilisation in agriculture or like energy source. Also, we have studied the possibilities to use this kind of waste according with the Romanian and U.E. legislation.
Key words: wastewater, sludge parameters, waste water treatment plant, sludge reuse, heavy metals


Ecoterra, No. 20, pp. 25-27, 2009
ACTIVITIES CONCERNING COMBATING CLIMATE CHANGE IN ROMANIA
ACTIVITĂŢI PRIVIND COMBATEREA SCHIMBĂRILOR CLIMATICE

Mihaela VAŞLABAN
Ministerul Mediului, Direcţia Schimbări Climatice

Abstract: Climate change is caused directly or indirectly by human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is observed over comparable time periods in addition to natural climate variability. Climate variability refers to variations in the mean state and other measures of the climate on all temporal and spatial scales beyond that of individual weather events. Variability may be due to natural internal processes within the climate system or to variations in natural or anthropogenic external forcing. The need for Romania to undertake GHG mitigation measures is limited given the current GHG emission levels and the expected emission trend. It is very likely that Romania will meet its Kyoto Protocol target even under the “without measure” emission growth scenario. Implementing domestic climate change measures is driven by several other factors, including: commitments under the UNFCCC, the Kyoto protocol and the EU accession require a proactive approach to mitigating GHG emissions, particularly the transposition and implementation of the EU regulation require specific actions; national and EU regulation require specific actions; various climate change measures will lead directly to efficiency improvement and contribute to the long-term competitiveness of the Romania economy.
Key words: climate change, mitigation, adaptation.


Ecoterra, No. 20, pp. 28-30, 2009
NATIONAL PARKS FROM USA
PARCURILE NAŢIONALE DIN AMERICA

Oana GUI
Universitatea de Artă şi Design Cluj-Napoca

Abstract: The paper aims at presenting the birth, the development and the shaping of the present American National Parks System. It intends to reveal the historical, scientific, economical and social intricacies that gave birth to the present parks system, perceived as a valuable example for all countries that intend to establish their own national parks system. The paper emphasizes the idea that the most special areas of any country must be preserved for the benefit of all people without any discrimination, and especially for the benefit of the future generations.
Key words: National Parks System, National Parks policies, USA


Ecoterra, No. 20, pp. 32-33, 2009
LABYRINTH FISHES (ANABANTOIDEI) IN THERMAL WATERS FROM BIHOR COUNTY - THEIR SURVIVAL DURING THE COLD SEASON
REPREZENTANŢI AI FAMILIEI BELONTIIDAE (TELEOSTEI, ANABANTOIDEI) ÎN APELE TERMALE BIHORENE - SUPRAVIEŢUIREA LOR ÎN ANOTIMPUL RECE

Radu Laurenţiu LOZINSKY
S.C. Bioflux S.R.L. Cluj-Napoca

Abstract: The paper presents the members of labyrinth fishes included in Belontiidae family (suborder Anabantoidei) from the Bihor County thermal waters, where they are non-native and recently introduced by aquarists. Two species were already reported from Băile 1 Mai and Băile Felix: Macropodus opercularis (Linnaeus, 1758) or the paradise fish, and two varieties of Trichogaster trichopterus (Pallas, 1770) - the blue gourami and the yellow gourami. The third species, Betta splendens Regan 1910, is only supposed to be present. Their low survival during the cold season is due to the contrast of temperature at the water surface, which damages to the health of alevins in the first three weeks of life when the auxilliary respiration begins. The paper also shows some reproductive aspects relevant to the species potential of survival, naturalization and dispersal.
Key words: belontiid fish, non-native species, thermal waters, aquarium, respiration


Ecoterra, No. 20, pp. 34-35, 2009
VEGETARIANISM BETWEEN HEALTH AND ECOLOGY
VEGETARIANISMUL ÎNTRE SĂNĂTATE ŞI ECOLOGIE

Lăcrămioara PETRE
Institutul de Antropologie al Academiei Române, Bucureşti
Tiberiu STAN
Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Institut für Neurophysiologie und Pathophysiologie

Abstract: From the nutritional behaviours, the vegetarianism is a phenomenon relatively new but very well known and appreciated for its nature friendly message but also for some medical reasons. Having diverse motivations but also diverse types of manifestation according to the residential cultural medium, vegetarianism is in fact a way of fighting against pollution, excessive industrialisation, disrespect of animal rights and wasting the planet resources. The aim of this paper is to point out some of the ecological aspects of the vegetarians believes, lifestyle and nutritional behaviour.
Key words: nutritional behaviours, vegetarianism, ecology


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