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PRIMA PAGINĂ ECOTERRA NUMĂRUL 6(22-23)/2009


Ecoterra, No. 22-23, pp. 4-5, 2009
METHODOLOGICAL DATA REGARDING IN VITRO COLLECTION
DATE PRIVIND METODOLOGIA DE CREŞTERE IN VITRO A TREI SPECII RARE DE PLANTE

Rodica Daniela BLÎNDU
Biology Institute of Romanian Academy

Abstract. There is increasing global awareness of the need for conserving genetic resources of rare plants. Knowing the fact that most of the in vitro collections of the rare plant species are not enough documented, the identification of the parameters that should be quantified for a good management of the collections was discussed. Documentation (all the data on the sample) is essential for an in vitro collection management to allow efficient and effective use of germplasm. Based on the Guidebook for Genetic Resources Documentation it was established the in vitro collection evidence and the monitoring sheet for three rare plant species.
Keywords: in vitro collection, genetic resources, documentation, rare plant species, ex situ conservation


Ecoterra, No. 22-23, pp. 6-7, 2009
RUBBER MEMBRANES FOR AIR-IN-WATER DISPERSORS. THE INFLUENCE OF CARBON BLACK UPON THE PERFORMANCES OF FLEXIBLE MEMBRANE COMPOSITION
MEMBRANE DIN CAUCIUC PENTRU DISPERSOARE AER-ÎN-APĂ. INFLUENŢA NEGRULUI DE FUM ASUPRA PERFORMANŢELOR COMPOZIŢIEI DE MEMBRANĂ ELASTICĂ

Elena BUGARU
CERELAST S.A., Bucureşti (retras)
Grigore VLAD
S.C. ICPE BISTRIŢA S.A.
Gheorghe IVAN
ASTR

Abstract: The flexible membrane represents the most important bench-mark which influences the proper functioning and duty eeficiency of an installation which realizes air -in-water dispersion. In order to investigate the influence of the black carbon upon the performances of the flexible membranes composition, in this experiment were included three types of black carbon (two of them were semiruggedized, and one was ruggedized), according to STAS 1001/2-88.
Key words: flexible membrane, dispersion, carbon black


Ecoterra, No. 22-23, pp. 8-9, 2009
ULTRAPURE WATER PREPARATION TECHNOLOGY FROM PRIMARY SOURCES
TEHNOLOGIE DE OBŢINERE A APEI ULTRAPURE DIN SURSE PRIMARE

Sorin ULINICI, Grigore VLAD, George Adrian RUSU, Gabriela BĂISAN
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.

Abstract: The work includes two basic technological modules, namely the pretreatment module and the ultrapure water preparation module. The pretreatment module comprises such technological steps as pressure increase, mechanical filtration, preozonization, filtration on a multimedia bed, reverse osmosis, electrodeionization, the advanced oxidation step (O3 /UV). The ultrapurification module includes a UV (254nm) radiation treatment step, a step of filtration on a bed of active coal and a step of submicron filtration.
Key words: tehnological modules, ultrapure water preparation, ultrapurification


Ecoterra, No. 22-23, pp. 10-11, 2009
THE DETERMINATION OF ANTIOXIDATIVE ACTION OF SOME NATURAL PLANTS EXTRACTS
DETERMINAREA ACTIVITĂŢII ANTIOXIDANTE A UNOR EXTRACTE NATURALE DIN PLANTE

Tiberius DICU
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa Mediului
Ion Dan POSTESCU
Institutul Oncologic “Prof. dr. I. Chiricuţă”, Departamentul de Radiobiologie şi Biologie Tumorală, Cluj-Napoca
Constantin COSMA
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa Mediului

Abstract:. In the present study we measured the antioxidant activities of 4 natural plant-extracts (Vitis vinifera variety Burgund Mare, Calluna vulgaris, Camellia sinensis and Epilobium hirsutum) by stable free radical DPPH∙ assay.         Substrate concentrations that lower the initial DPPH∙ activity by 50 % (EC50) were calculated by non-linear regression analysis (sigmoidal four parameters curve) at different intervals of time. Steady state efficient concentration (EC50ss) and the time required to reach steady state (TEC50ss), were obtained from an exponential decay equation. EC50ss varied in order: C. sinensis > V. vinifera > E. hirsutum > C. Vulgaris. TEC50ss values had different ranking, V. vinifera and C. vulgaris having the fastest kinetic followed by E. hirsutum and C. sinensis. The procedure we described is fast, reproductible and the parameters scored might be useful tools in characterizing the radical-scavenging properties of antioxidants.

Keywords: polyphenols; plant extracts; DPPH∙ assay; antioxidant activity


Ecoterra, No. 22-23, pp. 12-14, 2009
OPTIMIZATON ALGORITHMS FOR AERATION BASED CONTROL OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS
ALGORITMI PENTRU OPTIMIZAREA CONTROLULUI AERĂRII ÎN STAŢIILE DE EPURARE A APELOR UZATE

V. SOMOGYI, , E. DOMOKOS, Á. RÉDEY
University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary
E. FAZAKAS
Chemi Ceramic F. Ltd., Sf.

Abstract: This paper presents aeration based control strategies using reference data of a benchmark developed for creating and evaluating different control strategies. The aim was to investigate the applicability, reliability and time complexity of two optimization algorithms. These two methods were: the gradient descent (or gradient method), a conventional minimizing algorithm and a stand-alone metaheuristic, the genetic algorithm. The problem, through which the comparison was made, was to give value to the parameters of a modified PID (Proportional, Integral and Derivative) control. The input value was defined by the difference of the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration set-point (2 g/m3) and the DO concentration of the fifth reactor. The controlled argument was the mass transfer coefficient modified through the change of the air flow rate. The objective was to keep the DO measurements in the interval of 1.8-2.2 g/m3.       Optimisation process was carried out with the help of a graphical toolbox. After tuning the parameters manually the constraints were narrowed in multiple steps. Two different sets of parameters were defined as initial values and all cases were run twice. It became clear from the results that the two optimisation techniques gave similar results on the PID parameters, the observed DO curves were very close to each other. The curves with a few exceptions stayed within the range of 1.8 and 2.2 g/m3 despite of the wider optimization interval. The differences between the results indicate that there are more than one local minimiser, which denotes that the gradient descent would not be applicable for the problem without pre-defined boundary conditions. The time complexity of the algorithms was also examined during the simulation. The features of the different methods could be clearly observed. With one exception the gradient method was more time consuming and the time-span varied largely while the time frame of the genetic algorithm was steadily between two and three hours.

Key words: wastewater, aeration based control, PID control, genetic algorithm, gradient descent


Ecoterra, No. 22-23, pp. 15-17, 2009
COMPUTER SIMULATION OF A REVERSE OSMOSIS INSTALATION USED FOR THE SEPARATION OF PROTEIN AND LACTOSE FROM BUTTERMILK
SIMULAREA CU AJUTORUL COMPUTERULUI A UNEI INSTALAŢII DE OSMOZĂ INVERSĂ UTILIZATĂ PENTRU SEPARAREA PROTEINEI ŞI LACTOZEI DIN ZER

George RUSU, Gabriela BĂISAN
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.
Adrian ZĂPÂRŢAN
S.C. IMAT S.R.L. Bistriţa

Abstract: The buttermilk obtained from the milk industry represents from many years, a major problem for the treatment of industrial wastewaters, due to its highly content in proteins and sugars. Through several processes, the unwanted substances are removed from the buttermilk and some of them are transformed in useful substances for food and fertilisers. The separation of the various substances from the buttermilk is realised by protein hidrolisation processes, filtration processes and reverse osmosis. In this paper we will simulate, with computer help, a reverse osmosis instalation used for the separation of proteines and lactose from the buttermilk.
Key words: reverse osmosis, buttermilk, simulation, separation processes


Ecoterra, No. 22-23, pp. 18-20, 2009
THE FLOODS FROM TÎRLIŞUA AND THEIR IMPACT UPON THE ENVIRONMENT
IMPACTUL INUNDAŢIILOR DE LA TÎRLIŞUA ASUPRA MEDIULUI

Cristina RUSU
Colegiul Tehnic ,,Infoel” Bistriţa

Abstract: Floods are extreme hydro meteorological phenomena, which mean that the river has overflowed its banks. The floods of Tîrlişua, which are in fact the objective of the case study in this paper, are surely the biggest disaster ever seen in Bistriţa-Năsăud county and one of the most important in our country in the last years, due to the great number of victims and of material damage, on a very concentrated space. The effects of the floods produced in Tîrlişua on the 20th of June were from the most disastrous. There were 13 human losses, meaning 10 dead persons and 3 persons missing, whose bodies haven’t been discovered not even today. Except the locals’ houses which were damaged and destroyed, many other public buildings had been destroyed: the local hospital - totally destroyed, the medical consultations are taking place, even nowadays, in a simple house; the sports hall was destroyed, too; the Community Cultural Center, the Town hall, the Heroes’ Monument and the Orthodox Church. 
Key words: floods, hydrologic hazards, management of floods, Tîrlişua


Ecoterra, No. 22-23, pp. 22-25, 2009
THE ECOLOGICAL REHABILITATION OF THE MILL CANAL FROM CLUJ-NAPOCA. ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECT
REABILITAREA ECOLOGICĂ A CANALULUI MORII DIN CLUJ-NAPOCA. PROIECT DE MEDIU

Leonora BARBU, Mariana SZENKOVITS
Grupul Şcolar de Chimie Industrială “Terapia”, Cluj-Napoca

Abstact: This project represents the efforts and results of a laborious ecological research and monitoring of the quality of the Mill Canal’s water, canal that flows through the historic centre of Cluj-Napoca. The investigation was conducted by the authors of the project, students and teachers from Industrial Chemistry “Terapia” High School, based on the assumption that the canal water is polluted and the legislation in force is not complied, regarding the quality of surface water. Another hypothesis considered by our team, is the invaluable potential offered by this river for future of Cluj-Napoca and for the local community.
Key words: ecological disaster, future project, Mill Canal, responsable behaviour, ecological guard


Ecoterra, No. 22-23, pp. 26-28, 2009
USED PRODUCTS: SOURCE OF RAW MATERIALS AND ENERGY - CASE OF WASTE TYRES
PRODUSELE UZATE: SURSĂ DE MATERII PRIME ŞI ENERGIE - CAZUL ANVELOPELOR UZATE

Gheorghe IVAN
TG International S.A. (retras)
Eugen-Florin MELEGA
MEF One Co., Bucureşti

Abstract: The huge number of vehicles working around the world makes the  tyre impact  on the environment to be impossible to be neglected. One aspect of that impact is represented by turning the post-consume tyres by their use in: production of new materials / raw materials, reuse by retreading, production of thermal and/or electrical energy.
Key words: waste tyres, raw materials, energy


Ecoterra, No. 22-23, pp. 29-30, 2009
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MONITORING SYSTEM OF WASTES AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES
CONTRIBUŢII LA DEZVOLTAREA UNUI SISTEM DE MONITORIZARE A DEŞEURILOR ŞI STRATEGII DE DEZVOLTARE DURABILĂ

Cornelia Elena TUREAC, Ioan BORDEAN
University Danubius from Galaţi

Abstract: The environment is the ensemble of conditions and natural elements of Earth: air, water, soil, subsoil, the characteristics of the landscape, all the organic and inorganic materials, as well as and the living being, natural systems in interaction, including the elements listed above,, including some material and spiritual values, quality of life and the conditions that may affect the human health and welfare. The environmental protection is achieved trough six types of activities, respectively: legislative, administrative institutional, educational-informational, economic and technological, social and of international cooperation. According to the analysis conducted by the EU experts, the priority problems of environment in Romania are: water pollution, mainly from industry but also from domestic sources, air pollution, nature protection and the conservation of the biodiversity (problems in restoring the ecological affected areas); issues wastes, ecological areas with hazard risk (identified 14 “hot spots” at the Romania level, severely affected), economic instability/ the policy considered as the main cause of the environmental problems. Under these conditions, the viability of the work is marked by the sustainable development strategy as a key element of the sustainable human development, trough a concern for nature as an inheritance and the reserve of the future generations, as well as the main expected befits.
Key words: waste, biodiversity conservation, ecological responsability, sustainable development


Ecoterra, No. 22-23, pp. 31-33, 2009
THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
DEZVOLTAREA DURABILĂ ŞI PROTECŢIA MEDIULUI

Ildiko Melinda VARGA
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa Mediului
Helene Maria SABO
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Psihologie şi Ştiinţele Educaţiei

Abstract: Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for future generations to come. The term was used by the Brundtland Commission which coined what has become the most often-quoted definition of sustainable development as development that “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. The ecologic concerns and the environment problems go beyond the state borders, just like money and information.
Key words: sustainable development, environment protection, economy, legislation


Ecoterra, No. 22-23, pp. 34-36, 2009
DIOXINS AND LEGISLATIVE INSURANCE OF HEALTH PROTECTION PROCESS IN REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA
DIOXINELE ŞI ASIGURAREA LEGISLATIVĂ A PROCESULUI DE PROTECŢIE A SĂNĂTĂŢII ÎN REPUBLICA MOLDOVA

DIONISIE BUBURUZ, VICTOR PLÂNGĂU, REGINA FASOLĂ, CAROLINA CLIPA
INSTITUTUL DE ECOLOGIE ŞI GEOGRAFIE AL AŞM, CHIŞINĂU, REPUBLICA MOLDOVA

Abstract: dioxins are produced in the combustion process and through gas emission they pollute the environment. the studies showed a stable increasing in time of dioxin and furan concentration in environment and in biological tissues. the quantity of dioxins emited in environment by the local pollutants sources was determined by calculation on the basis of polluting substances emissions, fuel consumption and specific coefficient of dioxin and furan emission after burning and technological processes. the legislative frame to insure the environment protection, to regulate the impact of dioxins and furans upon the environment and health in republic of moldova is rather satisfactory, while the technical support and the level of control technologies used in republic of moldova don’t allow the implementation of an efficient control and regulation measures of environment and health protection process.
Key words:  anthropic emisions, ecological impact, dioxins, furans, health, legislation


Ecoterra, No. 22-23, pp. 37-39, 2009
ANALYSIS OF THE VEGETABLE SPECIES DIVERSITY FROM CHIŞINĂU CITY ECOSYSTEM
ANALIZA DIVERSITĂŢII VEGETAŢIEI IERBACEE DIN MUNICIPIUL CHIŞINĂU

Petru OBUH, Nadejda GRABCO, Constantin BULIMAGA, Irina KOLOMIEŢ
Institutul de Ecologie şi Geografie, AŞM, Universitatea de Stat din Moldova

Abstract: The analysis of vegetation species diversity for 9 phytohores of vegetation habitats from Chişinău city has been carried out. The reduction of Q index (floristic resources) in 3 times and Z index (families’ number of phytohores) in 2 times for strong heavy metals polluted habitats from Chişinău city (areas Tracom and Buiucani) has been established. The Biological Purification Plant area presents an exception, where negatively heavy metal effect to the vegetable species was compensated by chelating with organic substances from polluted water and mood. 
Key words: diversity, species, geographical centers for the origin and occurrence of herbaceous vegetation


Ecoterra, No. 22-23, pp. 40-41, 2009
POLLUTANT DISPERSION INSIDE THE BRĂDIŞOR ARTIFICIAL LAKE
DISPERSIA POLUANŢILOR ÎN LACUL ARTIFICIAL BRĂDIŞOR

Mihai DINCĂ
Garda Naţională de Mediu - Vâlcea

Abstract: The present paper tries to offer a solution for the complex problems regarding the pollutant dispersion in an aqueous environment with direct application of its evolution in large volume of water - Brădişor artificial lake. Brădişor Lake is an artificial accumulation formed by the realization of a dam. It is a part of complex appliance of Lotru River. Its main scope is to feed with water the towns and small communities situated along the Olt valley: Brezoi, Călimăneşti, Râmnicul Vâlcea up to Drăgăşani. Near the dam, at Stan Valley, is situated a water treatment plant.
Key words: pollutants dispersion, mathematical modelling, numerical simulation, artificial lake


Ecoterra, No. 22-23, pp. 42-44, 2009
RADON POTENTIAL FROM SOIL AND RADON RISK EVALUATION
POTENŢIALUL DE RADON DIN SOL ŞI ESTIMAREA RISCULUI DE RADON

Botond PAPP, Constantin COSMA, Mircea MOLDOVAN, Dan Niţă CONSTANTIN
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa Mediului

Abstract: Measurements of radon concentrations in soil and exhalation from soil are used as indicators in some applications such as: exploration of deposits of uranium, indoor radon, seismic activity or earthquakes predictions, location of tectonic faults or verification of transport models. Estimation of soil radon potential could be perform by simultaneous measurements of radon concentrations in soil and permeability of soil. Measurements of radon and throron concentrations can be perform by scintillation detectors (LUK3C with Lucas cells), by sampling a volume of the air from the soil. Soil permeability measurements can be perform with an equipement of in situ permeability measurements, RADON-JOK (Czech Republic), by extracting a soil air and measurements of soil air flow in time. For in situ measurements, this method can be applied to estimate the radon risk areas, or mapping the soil radon levels of a region.
Key words: radon, radon potential, permeability


Ecoterra, No. 22-23, pp. 45-47, 2009
ABSOLUTE DATING OF ROMANIAN LOESS USING LUMINESCENCE TECHNIQUES: PALAEOCLIMATIC IMPLICATIONS
DATAREA ABSOLUTĂ A LOESSULUI ROMÂNESC UTILIZÂND TEHNICI DE LUMINISCENŢĂ: IMPLICAŢII PALEOCLIMATICE

Alida TIMAR GABOR, Ştefan VASILINIUC
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa Mediului
Dimitri VANDENBERGHE
Luminescence Research Group, Gent University, Gent, Belgium

Abstract: Loess deposits preserve a potentially important and detailed archive of Pleistocene climate change; however, their significance can only be fully understood once a reliable and absolute chronology is available. Our study concerns the absolute dating of the most important loess deposits in Romania using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) methods. This paper presents general descriptions of these deposits together with our first luminescence results for the Mircea Vodă profile.
Key words: loess, Romania, absolute dating, luminescence


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