ecoterra online Ro | En
Echipa redacţională

Instrucţiuni pentru autori
 
Numărul curent
Numărul 1(1-2)/2004
Numărul 1(3)/2004
Numărul 2(6)/2005
Numărul 2(4)/2005
Numărul 2(5)/2005
Numărul 2(7)/2005
Numărul 3(10)/2006
Numărul 3(9)/2006
Numărul 3(8)/2006
Numărul 3(11)/2006
Numărul 4(14)/2007
Numărul 4(12)/2007
Numărul 4(13)/2007
Numărul 4(15)/2007
Numărul 5(16)/2008
Numărul 5(17)/2008
Numărul 5(18)/2008
Numărul 5(19)/2008
Numărul 6(20)/2009
Numărul 6(22-23)/2009
Numărul 6(21)/2009
Numărul 7(24)/2010
Numărul 7(25)/2010
Numărul 8(29)/2011
Numărul 8(28)/2011
Numărul 8(27)/2011
Numărul 8(26)/2011
Numărul 9(30)/2012
Numărul 9(31)/2012
Numărul 9(32)/2012
Numărul 9(33)/2012
Numărul 10(37)/2013
Numărul 10(35)/2013
Numărul 10(36)/2013
Numărul 10(34)/2013
Numărul 11(4)/2014
Numărul 11(3)/2014
Numărul 11(2)/2014
Numărul 11(1)/2014
Numărul 12(4)/2015
Numărul 12(3)/2015
Numărul 12(2)/2015
Numărul 12(1)/2015
Numărul 13(1)/2016
Numărul 13(2)/2016
Numărul 13(3)/2016
Numărul 13(4)/2016

PRIMA PAGINĂ ECOTERRA NUMĂRUL 8(26)/2011


Ecoterra, no. 26, pp. 1-6, 2011
SOUTH DOBROGEA AQUIFER UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF THE DANUBE - BLACK SEA CHANNEL AND OF ITS POTENTIAL POLLUTING FACTORS
ACVIFERUL DOBROGEI DE SUD SUB INFLUENŢA CANALULUI DUNĂRE - MAREA NEAGRĂ ŞI A FACTORILOR ANTROPICI , POTENŢIAL POLUATORI AI ACESTUIA

Mihai BARAC, Dănuţ MARIA, Animary ARGHIRESCU, Cristina ANTONIAC
Institutul Naţional de Cercetări şi Documentări Îmbunătăţiri Funciare - S.C. ISPIF S.A. Bucureşti

Abstract:  South dobrogea aquifer under the influence of the danube - black sea channel and of its potential polluting factors. The structural characteristics of the Danube Black Sea Channel are placed in the category of the most complex constructions of its kind in Europe. Its construction, as well as the implementation of water wells from Caragea, Caragea Dermen, Eforie, Costineşti, Basarabi, Valul lui Traian, Medgidia, etc., and the existence of the irrigation system have changed the natural hydrological conditions of the aquifer system. There are a lot of potential polluting sources that exist along the channel which can affect the quality of the channel water, in case of an accident; the polluted water can turn itself into a secondary source of pollution.
Key words: anthropic factors, channel, pollution potential, aquipherous


Ecoterra, no. 26, pp. 7-10, 2011
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT BY PROMOTING ECO-INNOVATION IN MALTA
DEZVOLTAREA DURABILĂ PRIN PROMOVAREA ECO-INOVAŢIILOR ÎN MALTA

Leonora Barbu
Colegiul Tehnic „Ana Aslan” Cluj-Napoca

Abstract: Sustainable development by promoting eco-innovation in Malta. When the world has been going through a turbulent financial period, indeed, understanding the principle of how development in different spheres of life can take place in a sustainable way becomes even more important. Due to the importance of exploiting innovation and creativity in supporting sustainable development, the EU has approved a short training aimed at adult learners and trainers on the important topic of „Eco Innovation for An Enlarged EU”. In corelation with both EU Grundtvig and Comenius in-service training schemes, this course aims to transfer knowledge through a mix of basic theoretical foundations and practical examples/case-studies. At the same time, the course is a unique opportunity of allowing a number of participants coming from different EU Member States and having a diverse background, to learn from each other and network amongst themselves.
Key words: eco-innovation, eco-design, recycling, waste, European Projects


Ecoterra, no. 26, pp. 11-16, 2011
REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA’S GREENHOUSE GAS INVENTORY. QUALITY ASSURANCE / QUALITY CONTROL AND INVENTORY UNCERTAINTY
INVENTARUL GAZELOR CU EFECT DE SERă DIN REPUBLICA MOLDOVA

Vladimir BREGA
Institute of Ecology and Geography
Marius ŢĂRANU, V. SCORPAN
Climate Change Office besides ME Republic of Moldova
Valeriu BRAŞOVEANU
Institute of Ecology and Geography

Abstract: This work has been developed within the Project “Republic of Moldova: Ennobling Activities for the Preparation of the (UNFCCC)” with financial support of the Global Environment Facility (GEF), from November 2005 through September 2008. Emissions of direct (CO2, CH4, N2O, HCF and SF6) and indirect (NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2) greenhouse gases were estimated based on methodologies contained in the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. The evolution of total direct greenhouse gas emissions expressed in CO2 equivalent, revealed a decreasing trend in the Republic of Moldova, reducing by circa 72.3 percent: from 42886.0 Gg CO2 equivalent in 1990 to 11883.5 Gg CO2 equivalent in 2005. Emissions of CH4 have decreased by circa 39.5 percent: from 4766.1 Gg CO2 eq. in 1990, to 2883.8 Gg CO2 eq. in 2005, while emissions of N2O decreased by circa 58.1 percent: from 3354.7 1 Gg CO2 eq. in 1990, to 1404.1 Gg CO2 eq. in 2005. Halocarbons emissions (in particular HFCs, as no PFCs emission have been registered so for in the Republic of Moldova) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) emissions commenced in 2000, considered as a reference year for F - gases in the Republic of Moldova.
Keywords: greenhouse gas inventory, quality assurance, climate change


Ecoterra, no. 26, pp. 17-20, 2011
MINERALOGIC CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING THE BADENIAN SALT LAKES FROM TRANSYLVANIAN BASIN
CONSIDERAŢII MINERALOGICE PRIVIND LACURILE SĂRATE DIN BADENIAN SITUATE ÎN PODIŞUL TRANSILVANIEI

Ramona Flavia CÂMPEAN
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa Mediului
Alexandra Gertrud HOSU PRACK
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-napoca, Facultatea de Chimie şi Inginerie Chimică
Ioan PETEAN, George ARGHIR
Universitatea Tehnică din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa şi Ingineria Materialelor
Dumitru RISTOIU
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa Mediului

Abstract: Mineralogic considerations concerning the Badenian salt lakes from Transylvanian Basin. The salt deposits from Transylvanian Basin date since Badenian - middle of Miocene. This period is well known for its sediments based on quartz sand and calcite deposits intercalated with evaporites such natrium chloride crystallized in cubic simple structure as halite. Such formations are wide spreaded in all Transylvanian Basin; one of the most important line is Dej - Cojocna - Turda. Often, deep water springs solve halite deposits causing earth falls associated with formations of salt lakes. One small salt lake on the Dej - Cojocna - Turda line is Pata Rât Lake.
            We tapped soil samples from near the lake and the water and mud samples were extracted from it. The water and mud samples were layered as thin film on glass surfaces and subjected to a natural drying. All samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction and optical transmitted light microscopy. In the soil sample we found: quartz and calcite mixed particles embedded into a large amount of fine lepidolite particles. The same mineral composition was identified in the mud sample, particles being embedded in halite crystals due to the large quantities of sodium chloride. The large amount of sodium chloride was pointed out in water sample crystallized in simple cubic system as halite crystals.
            The missing salt in the soil sample is related to the similar composition in the mud sample which proves that the lake formation is due to an earth fall caused by a badenian salt deposit solved by a small field spring. The mud composition and morphology is similar to some natural and artificial peloids. These observed similarities points out that the mud for Pata Rât Lake is a potential agent for pelotherapy in alternative curing of rheumatoid and skin affection.
Key words: salt lake, X-ray, mud, Pata Rât Lake


Ecoterra, no. 26, pp. 21-32, 2011
THE ROLE AND THE INVOLVEMENT OF ARACO IN ASSIMILATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE LEGISLATION AND RESEARCH RESULTS FROM ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION DOMAIN
ROLUL ŞI IMPLICAREA ARACO - ASCOCIAŢIA ROMÂNĂ A ANTREPRENORILOR DIN CONSTRUCŢII - ÎN ASIMILAREA ŞI IMPLEMENTAREA LEGISLAŢIEI ŞI A REZULTATELOR CERCETĂRII ÎN DOMENIUL PROTECŢIEI MEDIULUI

Constantin CAŞCAVAL, Augustin MUNTEANU
ARACO CLUJ

Abstract: The role and the involvement of ARACO in assimilation and implementation of the legislation and research results from environmental protection domain. ARACO was funded in 1990 and now it is comprising a total of 1300 members from all the buildings domains. ARACO is highly concerned by the sustainable development and one of the ARACO’s aimes is the environment protection. ARACO wishes to cooperate with great scientists in building fields. In order to improve the environment protection in Romania, this association has proposed several measures pointed out in the end of this article.

Key words: ARACO, sustainable development, environment, association, legislation


Ecoterra, no. 26, pp. 33-38, 2011
ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE TO THE CHLOROFORM AND EXPOSURE TOXICITY
EXPUNEREA AMBIENTALĂ LA CLOROFORM ŞI TOXICITATEA DE EXPUNERE

Daniela CIORBA
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa Mediului
Alexandra ALMAŞI
Science Faculty, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Danemark
Melinda KOVACS, Dumitru RISTOIU
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa Mediului

Abstract: Environmental exposure to the chloroform and exposure toxicity. Humans may be exposed to chloroform not only by ingestion of chloroform in drinking water, food, or soil, but also by dermal contact with contaminated media (especially water) and by inhalation of vapor, especially in indoor air. Because chloroform is relatively volatile, it tends to escape from contaminated environmental media (e.g., water or soil) into air, and may also be released in vapor form some types of industrial or chemical operations. The chloroform toxicological profile was done after the evaluation of toxicological data, in order to recommend the approaches for the exposure-based assessment of the potential hazard to public health. Data regarding health effects in humans and animals are available only for oral exposure. data regarding inhalation and dermal exposure are quite limited. No data, regarding intermediate-duration oral and dermal exposure in humans. In present EPA is currently working to revise the assessment for inhalation exposure, even the assessment for ingestion was done, being accepted those from 1987 and does not incorporate newer data or the 1996 or 1999 draft cancer assessment guidelines.
Key words: chloroform, exposure, toxicity, risk assessment


Ecoterra, no. 26, pp. 45-48, 2011
HEAVY METALS IN SEDIMENTS, RISK ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS IN ABANDONED MINES: A CASE STUDY OF VăRATEC RIVULET, BăIUţ, ROMANIA
METALE GRELE ÎN ALUVIUNI. STUDIU DE CAZ ÎN PÂRÂUL VĂRATEC, BĂIUŢ

Dora DOROŢAN
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj Napoca
Ioana CHIRA
Universitatea de Nord, Baia Mare
Győző JORDÁN
Institutul Geologic al Ungariei

Abstract: Heavy metals in sediments, risk assessment of heavy metals in abandoned mines: a case study of Văratec Rivulet, Băiuţ, Romania. One of the most serious environmental problems of Romania are the abandoned mining sites related to uncontrolled mine waste and acid mine drainage (AMD). Mining activities in Romania are closed since the 90’s when economically has became unprofitable, but the consequences on the ecosystem begin to emerge (drastic decline of fish fauna, drying of the riparian vegetation). Băiuţ district is one of the many abandoned mines in Romania and it is correlated to the term of cross-border pollution because of the acid mine drainage which contaminates more rivers until the mouth in Tisa (Hungary).
            The purpose of this study is to analyze the concentration of heavy metals in different points of the contaminated site: dump, creek and floodplain. The interpretation of the analysis of the stream sediment shows the difference between natural heavy metal contents and the historical pollution due to human activity. Mining pollution far exceeds the natural charge in case of Văratec mine. It is strongly recommended to extend these analysis throughout whole Lăpuş river, taking samples of water, stream sediment, alluvium from the riverbed and from soil of flood plain.
Key words: heavy metals, environment, mine, pollution


Ecoterra, no. 26, pp. 39-44, 2011
THE MONITORING OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY USING THERMOLUMINISCENCE DOSIMETRY
MONITORIZAREA RADIOACTIVITĂŢII MEDIULUI PRIN UTILIZAREA DOZIMETRELOR CU TERMOLUMINISCENŢĂ

Daniela CONSTANTIN, Alida TIMAR-GABOR, Constantin COSMA
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa Mediului

Abstract: The monitoring of the environmental radioactivity using thermoluminiscence dosimetry. Environmental monitoring of the radiation background aims through sampling or by the use of direct detection equipment to quantify the levels of radioactive substances and ionising radiation resulting form natural sources as well as from human activities. The paper presents the implementation of thermoluminescent (TL) methods for environmental dosimetric monitoring of the terrestrial gamma radiation background. The dosimetric system consists of a  Risø TL/OSL DA-20 reader and the highly sensitive LiF: Mg, Cu, P thermoluminescent detectors (commercially known as MCP-N). The lower limit detection (LLD) for this system is 5,5 μSv, a value which indicates that this system can be successfully used for environmental purposes. Measurements have been conducted in Cluj-Napoca as well as in Ştei area at Băiţa Plai, near to the former “Avram Iancu” uranium mine, which is a radon-prone area and assumed to have a high natural gamma radiation background. For Cluj-Napoca the natural gamma radiation dose rate found was 0,113 ± 0,016 μGyh-1 for outdoor exposure. Due to the influence of building materials radioactivity, values of 0,186±0,002 μGyh-1 for indoor exposure have been measured. In Băiţa Plai for outdoor exposure slightly elevated values of 0,185±0,042 μGyh-1 have been determined. Regarding the environmental gamma background, the values obtained are not believed to pose a direct threat to human health in the region. Our results confirm that thermoluminescence methods are very sensitive and can be applied with success for the implementation of environmental radiomonitoring networks.
Key words: environmental monitoring, terrestrial gamma radiation, thermoluminescence dosimetry, TLD, LiF: Mg, Cu, P


Ecoterra, no. 26, pp. 49-54, 2011
THE INFLUENCE OF GAS REMOVED FROM RUMINANT ANIMALS OVER THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT
INFLUENŢA GAZELOR ELIMINATE DE ANIMALELE RUMEGĂTOARE ASUPRA EFECTULUI DE SERĂ

Ioan DUNCA
Primăria Râciu, judeţul Mureş
Raluca-Ionela CHERTEŞ
Universitatea Petru Maior, Târgu Mureş
Olga Dunca
Gimnaziul de Stat Gh. Şincai, comuna Râciu, judeţul Mureş

Abstract: The influence of gas removed from ruminant animals over the greenhouse effect. In the last few years, the greenhouse gas emissions produced by ruminant animals rose by almost 20% compared to previous years, leading to increased greenhouse effect. This is also due to the gas that the ruminant animals produce permanently through belching and flatulence. Representatives of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concluded that these animals give off 18% of greenhouse gases.
Key words: ruminant animals, ruminant digestion, sinthesys, belching, flatulence


Ecoterra, no. 26, pp. 55-60, 2011
RELATION BETWEEN SETTLEMENT SYSTEM AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT IN CIUC-BASIN IN THE LAST SEVEN CENTURIES
RELAţIA îNTRE SISTEMUL DE AşEZăRI UMANE şI MEDIU îN BAZINUL CIUCULUI îN ULTIMELE 7 SECOLE

Tibor ELEKES
University of Miskolc, Depatment of Geography, Hungary

Abstract: In Ciuc-basin the evolution of settlement system is a centuries-old process. In 1567, 42 villages were registered. The evaluation of today’s settlement system lasted till the 20th century. In the years of 1950’s and 1960’s the scattered settlements and detached farms were declared villages. During centuries the town system had changed little. Near Miercurea-Ciuc, which had performed administrative duties for a short periods, Băile Tuşnad was declared to town in the middle of 20th century. The evaluation of settlement system, administration and environment are illustrated as a process on the 18 maps, made by myself. In this paper there are published three of them. They give a historical and stop-gap summary. Mass of facts, relating with settlements, regions, environment, administrative units placed in space can represent a base to the organising microregions in the last few years. In the same time old-centuries processes can be traced back: the natural environment was receded step by step with the evaluation of settlement systems.
Keywords: settlement system, natural environment, maps


Ecoterra, no. 26, pp. 61-68, 2011
NITRATE VULNERABILITY AND CONCENTRATION OF GROUNDWATERS IN HUNGARY
CONCENTRAţIA DE NITRAT îN APELE SUBTERANE DIN UNGARIA

Barbara KERÉK, József VATAI, Ildikó SZENTPÉTERY, László KUTI, Ubul FÜGEDI
Geological Institute of Hungary

Abstract: The designation of nitrate sensitive areas requires to consider the properties of subsurface water and the soil, as well as their environmental setting and attention should be paid to the behaviour of nitrogen compounds in the specific environment.
            In our opinion there are problems with the EU Nitrates Directive (91/676/EEC), for example the „one moment measure” or the uniform adaptation is the lack of a standard EU-wide sampling method. In our definition, those territories are vulnerable to nitrate pollution from agricultural sources where nitrate originates from agricultural activity and gets to the surface or to the uppermost layer of the geological media, and from where nitrates are washed down or into the geological media with a transporting medium (usually water) polluting the surface- or groundwater. About both the vulnerability of surface- and subsurface waters in Hungary maps were derived showing the risk areas. These maps can be used to plan for the preventive actions against nitrate pollution.
            Beside the national level, our research was continued in the model area level too. We can follow spatial-temporal changes of the nitrate-ion concentration in the groundwater at that scale much better, so model areas and sampling points (monitoring wells) were chosen in the middle and eastern part of Hungary.
            The conclusion of these measurements is that both the background values and the amount of anomalies varies with geological - morphological and meteorological factors. The vulnerability of surface covering sediments may be defined taking count all of these factors.
Key words: nitrate vulnerability, groundwater, Hungary


Ecoterra, no. 26, pp. 69-72, 2011
THE MONITORING OF THE ORGANOCHLORINATES PESTICIDES CONTENT IN COW MILK
MONITORIZAREA CONŢINUTULUI DE PESTICIDE ORGANOCLORURATE DIN LAPTELE DE VACĂ

Gabriela LENCO
Universitatea „Dunărea de Jos” Galaţi, Facultatea de Ştiinţa şi Ingineria Alimentelor
Mădălina ULIESCU
Colegiul Edmond Nicolau Brăila

Abstract: The monitoring of the organochlorinates pesticides content in cow milk. Cow milk is important not only as a major nutritional source, but also for commercial and industrial reasons. There are many ways in which milk can be contaminated with pesticides (river water, stagnant water, infected grazing field). Much progress has been made in pesticide analysis over the past decade, during which time hyphenated techniques involving highly efficient separation and sensitive detection have become the techniques of choice. The objective of this study has been to evaluate the organochlorinates pesticides content in cow milk, collected in processing factories from Brăila country during 2001-2006 to select milk producers. It is observed that pesticides residues level take place less than admitted limits.
Key words: cow milk, organochlorinates pesticides content, milk producers


Ecoterra, no. 26, pp. 73-78, 2011
NATURAL CLEANING OF WASTEWATERS RESULTED FROM SMALL LOCALITIES
EPURAREA NATURALĂ A APELOR UZATE MENAJERE REZULTATE DE LA LOCALITĂŢI MICI (SUB 2000 L. E.)

Mariana MINCU, Carmen TOCIU
INCDPM Bucureşti

Abstract: Natural cleaning of wastewaters resulted from small localities. Water has always been purified through natural processes occurring in its periods of transit through running waters, lakes and wetlands. Wetlands are ecosystems of high productivity supporting a massive development of plants and a great variety of animal species. The concept of constructed wetland is of late appearance - only some decades old - in the field of waste water treatment. It all started from the idea that, on the one hand, wetlands have, in general, a high self-purification capacity and on the other hand, many of the waste water purification processes can be reproduced within man-built systems providing conditions similar to the natural ones. A series of tests have already been carried out abroad, in countries with various climate conditions (USA, Great Britain, India, etc.) and the results are encouraging. Constructed wetlands are mostly used for the treatment of the primary or secondary effluent coming from sewerage of household waste waters. Wetlands are systems whose complexity is greater than that of constructed wetlands and it is desirable that the latter should attain the complex level and the superior treatment performance of the natural wetlands. 
Key words: wastewater, constructed wetland, natural purification


Ecoterra, no. 26, pp. 79-84, 2011
THE USE OF CO-DIGESTION PROCEDURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD TO INCREASE THE BIOGAS QUANTITY
UTILIZAREA PROCESELUI DE CO-DIGESTIE CA METODĂ ALTERNATIVĂ DE ÎMBUNĂTĂŢIRE A CANTITĂŢII DE BIOGAZ

Cătălina Raluca MOCANU, Elena MANEA, Dan Robescu
Universitatea Politehnică Bucureşti, Facultatea de Energetică

Abstract: The use of co-digestion procedure as an alternative method to increase the biogas quantity. Co-digestion is a mixture of two or more types of waste and its use in wastewater treatment leads to gradual improvement of anaerobic digestion step. The sludge resulting from biological treatment step in wastewater treatment is an active material immediately starts to ferment under anaerobic conditions. Fermentation stage is supplied approximately 5% in liquid state and 20-25% in total solid or dry form. Anaerobic digestion is a common process in wastewater treatment due to lower operating costs. It also enhances the anaerobic digestion of the treated water and is suitable for use in agriculture or to obtain energy by using cogeneration equipment. In this paper the authors present a general study of co-digestion process is used as an alternative method to improve the amount of biogas used in cogeneration plants to produce electricity and heat.
Keywords: co-digestion, biogas, treatment, wastewater


Ecoterra, no. 26, pp. 85-92, 2011
SOME GEOGRAPHIC AND ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF TREBUJENI LANDSCAPE RESERVE (REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA)
UNELE ASPECTE GEOGRAFICE ŞI ECOLOGICE ALE REZERVAŢIEI PEISAGISTICE TREBUJENI (REPUBLICA MOLDOVA)

Victoria NISTREANU, Alina LARION, Anatol SAVIN
Institutul de Zoologie al Academiei de Ştiinţe din Moldova
Larisa MIRONOV
Liceul teoretic „Principesa Natalia Dadiani”, Chişinău
Nicolae CORCIMARU, Vladimir ŢURCANU
Institutul de Zoologie al Academiei de Ştiinţe din Moldova
Dionisie BUBURUZ
Institutul de Ecologie şi Geografie al Academiei de Ştiinţe din Moldova

Abstract: Some geographic and ecological aspects of Trebujeni landscape reserve (Republic of Moldova). Trebujeni Reserve is situated between Furceni and Trebujeni villages and has a surface of 436 ha. Minimum and maximum altitudes are between 20.0 and 155.0 m. Relief consists of sarmatian geological structures of about 13 millions years with evident rupestral character and quaternary argylous landscape of about 1.8 millions - 10 thousand years covered by chernozems formed in the last 8 thousand years. The vegetation consist of 504 plant species, of which 69 species are rare, 29 plant species are protected bu the State and 5 species are included in the Red Book of Moldova. The reptiles were represented by species of snakes and 3 species of lizards, while the amphibians by 5 species. The mammal fauna is diverse and abundant, being represented by 6 species of insectivores, 8 species of bats, 17 species of rodens, 6 species of carnivores and 2 artiodactyl species. The diversity of mammal groups is higher in natural ecosystems, especially in woods, where the seasonal variations are less significant.
Key words: Trebujeni reserve, relief, vegetation, fauna, biodiversity.


Ecoterra, no. 26, pp. 93-98, 2011
THE PROTECTION OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS IN LEGISLATION FROM REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA
PROTECŢIA ECOSISTEMELOR FORESTIERE ÎN LEGISLAŢIA REPUBLICII MOLDOVA

Victor PLÂNGĂU
Institutul de Ecologie şi Geografie al Academiei de Ştiinţe a Moldovei, Chişinău, Republica Moldova

Abstract: The protection of forest ecosystems in legislation from Republic of Moldova. In this study we made an analysis of forest legislation of Republic of Moldova and its corespondence with the European legislation and sustainable development. It has been established that the present state of the forests is not compatible with some activities drawn in the legislation, so we propose some modifications in the legislation.
Key words: forest legislation, forest fund, forested areas, ecoproductive potential, sustainable development


Ecoterra, no. 26, pp. 99-102, 2011
STUDY CONCERNING THE EFFICIENCY INCREASEMENT OF A WASTEWATERS TREATMENT PLANT
STUDIU PRIVIND EFICIENTIZAREA ENERGETICĂ A UNEI STAŢII DE EPURARE A APELOR UZATE

Aurel PRESURĂ
S.C. RAJA S.A. Constanţa
Dan ROBESCU, Elena MANEA
Universitatea Politehnică Bucureşti

Abstract: Study concerning the efficiency increasement of a wastewaters treatment plant. Municipal wastewater treatment plants are major consumers of energy in national energy system. The cost of this energy consumption is an important part of the operating costs. In wastewater treatment plants is very difficult to make energy savings because the process is continuous. On the one hand the wastewater treatment plant water continuously enters the wastewater from the sewage system and, on the other hand, treatment technology is based on unit processes that can not be stopped or disconnected from the electric supply network. The reduction of the operating costs can only be achieved through the use of offset energy consumption by using regenerative sources - unconventional.
Keywords: energy, renewable sources, biogas, sewage, wastewater


Ecoterra, no. 26, pp. 103-108, 2011
THE EVALUATION OF THERMIC ENERGY NEEDS IN A WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT
EVALUAREA NECESARULUI DE ENERGIE TERMICĂ ÎN CADRUL UNEI STAŢII DE EPURARE A APELOR UZATE

Aurel PRESURĂ
S.C. RAJA S.A. Constanţa
Dan ROBESCU, Elena Manea, Doru Manea
Universitatea Politehnică Bucureşti

Abstract: The evaluation of thermic energy needs in a wastewater treatment plant. To carry out the processes in a wastewater treatment plant is necessary to maintain the optimal conditions, one of these being the thermal energy needs, which is evaluated by the authors in this paper. Heat consumption in a wastewater treatment plant can be classified into two categories: consumption of heat for technological processes - especially for creating optimal conditions for the process of anaerobic fermentation inside the methane tank, and thermal energy consumption to water heating and administrative space heating. Were conducted both a heat balance calculation and monitoring of heat consumption in Constanta Sud wastewater treatment plant.
Keywords: energy, heat, wastewater


Ecoterra, no. 26, pp. 109-114, 2011
MAJOR WASTES MANAGEMENT PROJECTS FINANCED THROUGH POS MEDIU
PROIECTE MAJORE DE GESTIONARE A DEŞEURILOR FINANŢATE PRIN POS MEDIU

Marilena ROZENBERG, Viorel BEŞE
Ministerul Mediului şi Pădurilor, Organism Intermediar POS Mediu Regiunea Nord-Vest

Abstract: Major wastes management projects financed through POS Mediu. The paper presents the status of major wastes management projects financed from Pos Mediu. We focuss on the projects which take place in the North-West Region, especially on a major project from Bistriţa-Năsăud county.
Keywords: waste, management, major projects, Sectoral Operational Program Environment


Ecoterra, no. 26, pp. 115-118, 2011
REDUCTION OF AIR POLLUTION BY USING THE BICYCLE AS CONVEYANCE
REDUCEREA POLUĂRII AERULUI UTILIZÂND BICICLETA CA MIJLOC DE TRANSPORT

Margareta Stan
Consultant individual

Abstract: Reduction of air pollution by using the bicycle as conveyance. Today, travelling inside the city looks like a long time lost. Mobility is a symbol. Bicycles can become an effective means of public transport. Since the 19th century and the Industrial Revolution, mobility is increasing. The 2009 Action Plan on urban mobility, issued by the European Commission, presented the European Mobility Week as one of those campaigns sustainable mobility, which plays an important role in creating a new culture for urban mobility. The overall objective of the "European Mobility Week” is to encourage awareness of the need to act against pollution caused by motorized traffic growth in urban areas. In fact, there is not only a matter of atmospheric pollution or noise but also to improve the quality of urban life. Cycling is not only the most efficient means of transport in terms of energy, but has many benefits for personal and community life.
Keywords: transport, mobility, bicycles, air pollution, urban life


Ecoterra, no. 26, pp. 119-124, 2011
ESTIMATION OF RADIONUCLIDES IN SOILS - A COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR ANNUAL DOSE IN LUMINESCENCE DATING
ESTIMAREA RADIONUCLIZILOR DIN SOL

Alida TIMAR, Constantin COSMA, Robert BEGY
Babeş-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Environmental Science, Romania
V. JOBAGY, G. SZEILER
Department of Radiochemistry, Pannon University, Veszprém, Hungary
D. BARBOS
Institute for Nuclear Research, Mioveni, Piteşti, Romania
D. FULEA
Institute of Public Health Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Abstract. A study was made in order to compare and test the performance of several methods for the annual radiation dose determination in luminescence dating. The following techniques were used: instrumental neutron activation, high resolution gamma ray spectrometry and alpha spectrometry. Detailed analysis was carried out through gamma spectrometry, the activities of  different nuclides (234Th, 226Ra, 214Pb, 214Bi, 210Pb,228Ac, 208Tl) in the uranium and thorium series being measured, as well as 40K. The potential of this method in checking the occurrence of radioactive disequilibrium in the series was investigated. The assumption that radium disequilibrium caused by the percolation of groundwater in soils can be encountered was supported by our finds. The consistency of the results obtained through the three different methods indicate the reliability of using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry as a fast and accurate method for measuring natural radionuclides concentrations in luminescence dating and as well for purposes of  environmental monitoring.

Keywords: luminescence dating, annual dose, high resolution gamma spectrometry, alpha spectrometry, neutron activation


Ecoterra, no. 26, pp. 125-130, 2011
ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND ECOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY OF WIND POWER
ENERGIA SOLARĂ, O SURSĂ INEPUIZABILĂ PENTRU VASTE DOMENII DE ACTIVITATE

Cornelia TUREAC, Rodica PRIPOAIE, Anca Gabriela TURTUREANU, Alin Constantin FILIP
Universitatea Danubius Galaţi, Facultatea de Ştiinţe Economice
Alina Mădălina ILIE
Universitatea Transilvania Braşov, Facultatea de Ştiinţe Economice

Abstract: Economic, social and ecological efficiency of wind power. At the end of 2009, the total worldwide capacity of the wind-powered generators was 159.2 gigawatts (GW). The energy production was of 340 TWh which is about 2% of the worldwide electricity usage. Also this type of energy is growing rapidly, being doubled in the past three years. Several countries achieved relatively high levels of wind power penetration (with large governmental subsidies, such as 20% of the stationary electricity production in Denmark, 14% in Portugal and Spain, 11% in Ireland and 8% in Germany in 2009. As of May 2009, 80 countries around the world are using wind power on a commercial basis.
   The wind energy is extensively used for today, and new wind turbines are being built all over the world, the wind energy being the energy source with the fastest growth in recent years, Romania becomes the most dynamic country in the region for wind energy development. From the viewpoint of many investors, Romania is the new El Dorado for wind energy. The interest in Romanian wind energy attracts national investors, but also from the Czech Republic, Austria, Italy, Spain and Portugal. Thus in the late of 2012, in Romania, over 7.5% of electricity demand could be covered by the wind energy.
   Each megawatts of wind power requires and investment ranging between 1.5 and 1.6 millions of euro, so the total value of the investments made in Romania could amount to 5 billion until 2013. In conclusion, the investment in wind power are expensive but the redemptions are made in 7-9 years, after which is entered on income, and we can add that this kind of alternative energy helps the environment by cleaning it of toxins that are made up trough conventional methods of obtaining the electricity.
Keywords: wind power, electricity, turbines, investment, environment


Ecoterra, no. 26, pp. 131-136, 2011
THE USAGE OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY TECHNOLOGY WITHIN THE RURAL AREAS
UTILIZAREA ENERGIILOR REGENERABILE ÎN ZONELE RURALE

Cornelia TUREAC
Universitatea Danubius Galaţi, Facultatea de Ştiinţe Economice
Alina Mădălina ILIE
Universitatea Transilvalia Braşov
Rodica PRIPOAIE, Carmen CREŢU, Alina Constantin FILIP, Anca Gabriela TURTUREANU
Universitatea Danubius Galaţi, Facultatea de Ştiinţe Economice

Abstract: The usage of alternative energy technology within the rural areas. In the present paper we have approached a subject of great importance to the humankind and which has often been found on the working agenda of big organizations and institutions at national and international level: the usefulness and necessity of the implementation of one of the XXI century’s innovative solutions - alternative energy sources. While developed countries like Germany, Denmark, Austria have already anticipated the unsecure future of the energy produced by using nonrenewable resources and as a result are testing and implementing systems that combine different types of alternative energy (hybrids), the developing countries are struggling with trying to reduce their energy and oil consumption and the harmful effects of using such fuel by raising pollution taxes. However, in recent years, their tentative has begun to produce successful results, bringing to the surface new opportunities created by the subsidized programmes for eco friendly energy projects. These projects could be used with great efficiency especially in Romania’s rural areas that are yet to be electrified. For this reason, in the current study we have underlined the present situation in which the un-electrified villages are found, the success met in other rural areas in the world by the alternative energy and sustainable development projects, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of implementing systems that use alternative energy technology, especially wind power.
Keywords: alternative energy, developed countries, villages, rural areas


Ecoterra, no. 26, pp. 137-142, 2011
ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND ECOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY OF WIND POWER
EFICIENŢA ECONOMICĂ, SOCIALĂ ŞI ECOLOGICĂ A ENERGIEI EOLIENE

Cornelia TUREAC, Rodica PRIPOAIE, Anca Gabriela TURTUREANU, Alin Constantin FILIP
Universitatea Danubius Galaţi, Facultatea de Ştiinţe Economice
Alina Mădălina ILIE
Universitatea Transilvania Braşov, Facultatea de Ştiinţe Economice

Abstract: Economic, social and ecological efficiency of wind power. At the end of 2009, the total worldwide capacity of the wind-powered generators was 159.2 gigawatts (GW). The energy production was of 340 TWh which is about 2% of the worldwide electricity usage. Also this type of energy is growing rapidly, being doubled in the past three years. Several countries achieved relatively high levels of wind power penetration (with large governmental subsidies, such as 20% of the stationary electricity production in Denmark, 14% in Portugal and Spain, 11% in Ireland and 8% in Germany in 2009. As of May 2009, 80 countries around the world are using wind power on a commercial basis.
   The wind energy is extensively used for today, and new wind turbines are being built all over the world, the wind energy being the energy source with the fastest growth in recent years, Romania becomes the most dynamic country in the region for wind energy development. From the viewpoint of many investors, Romania is the new El Dorado for wind energy. The interest in Romanian wind energy attracts national investors, but also from the Czech Republic, Austria, Italy, Spain and Portugal. Thus in the late of 2012, in Romania, over 7.5% of electricity demand could be covered by the wind energy.
   Each megawatts of wind power requires and investment ranging between 1.5 and 1.6 millions of euro, so the total value of the investments made in Romania could amount to 5 billion until 2013. In conclusion, the investment in wind power are expensive but the redemptions are made in 7-9 years, after which is entered on income, and we can add that this kind of alternative energy helps the environment by cleaning it of toxins that are made up trough conventional methods of obtaining the electricity.
Keywords: wind power, electricity, turbines, investment, environment


Ecoterra, no. 26, pp. 143-148, 2011
MODELS OF INTERDEPENDENCE OF THE GROUNDWATER FLOWING ELEMENTS
MODELE DE INTERDEPENDENŢĂ A ELEMENTELOR CIRCULAŢIEI APEI FREATICE

Anca Gabriela TURTUREANU, Cornelia Elena TUREAC, Rodica PRIPOAIE, Carmen CREŢU, Alin Constantin FILIP
Universitatea Danubius Galaţi, Facultatea de Ştiinţe Economice
Alina Mădălina ILIE
Universitatea Transilvania Braşov, Facultatea de Ştiinţe Economice

Abstract: Models of interdependence of the groundwater flowing elements. The own resources of water of the Braila’s Plain are formed from lakes and underground waters. The lakes, most of them are salty, with a high salt content, which are offering a usage, especially for therapeutic purposes. The underground waters, although contain soluble salts in amounts large enough; they may be important water reserves in this area. The water balance of the surface and underground waters from this area is subject to the specific conditions of climate and relief. The low precipitations situated around the 400-500 mm/year values and the evapoperspiration with very high values, sometimes reaching 800 mm/year, are influencing the water balance in the interfluve area.
Key words: environmental factors, ground water, models of interdependence


Ecoterra, no. 26, pp. 149-156, 2011
THE MODELLING OF OZONE GENERATOR BY CORONA EFFECT
MODELAREA GENERATORULUI DE OBŢINERE A OZONULUI PRIN EFECT CORONA

Dumitru VÂJU, Gabriela BǍISAN
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.
George VÂJU
Grup Şcolar „Grigore Moisil”, Bistriţa, România

Abstract: The modelling of ozone generator by CORONA effect. Removal of pollutants in water sources used to obtain drinking water uses advanced oxidation technologies pollutant (AOP), technologies that may include phase reaction of ozone with pollutants. The design phase of a product must contain the steps of modelling-simulation and optimization to study its dynamic behavior at different input parameters (its response using different strategies), the investment and operating costs.
Key words: advanced oxidation tehnologies (AOP), modelling, simulation, optimization


Ecoterra, no. 26, pp. 157-160, 2011
POLLUTANTS MEASURING IN RIVERS AROUND CLUJ CITY
MĂSURAREA POLUANŢILOR ÎN RÂURILE DIN JURUL CLUJULUI

Melinda VIGH, Zoltán HORVÁTH
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa Mediului
Liviu SUCIU
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.
Domnica Pop
Sc. Al. Vaida Voevod
Mihaela Andreica
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.
Ildikó BARTALIS
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa Mediului

Abstract: Pollutants measuring in rivers around Cluj city. The presence of pollutants in water can be traced by colour, smell, temperature. The existence of a communication between rivers and the outside environment makes possible for pollutants to enter the water. Natural pollution of the rivers appears due to their interactions with the atmosphere, when takes place the dissolvation of gases from the atmosphere in water. Artificial pollution is caused by wastewaters of any kind, residues etc. In this paper we realised some measures with the Consort C 933 multiparameter in order to determine the quality of river Someş water. We concluded that in many places there is a major quantity of pollutants.
Key words: artificial pollution, river, wastewaters


Ecoterra, no. 26, pp. 161-164, 2011
SUPERVISORY CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION (SCADA) SYSTEMS IN THE PURGING STATION OF TRADING CO. COMCEH S.A. CăLăRAşI
SISTEME DE MONITORIZARE, ACHIZIŢIE A DATELOR ŞI CONTROL (SCADA) ÎN STAŢIA DE EPURARE DE LA S.C. COMCEH S.A. CĂLĂRAŞI

Grigore VLAD, Bogdan HUMOREANU, Ciprian POP
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A., Bistriţa, România

Abstract: Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems in the purging station of trading CO. COMCEH S.A. Călăraşi. In the complex system of interaction between the environment and the industrial processes some of the most important aspects still debating, consist in efficient resource consumption and diminishing the impact the industrial activities have upon the environment. By taking advantage of the newest technological achievements, these interactions are brought to a new level, by successful implementations of powerful control method and process analysis instruments. In the present material, we will have a look at a residual water treatment process at Comceh S.A. Călăraşi, where we have a case of successful implementation of SCADA system and modern online process analysis devices. 


Key words: SCADA systems, industrial water treatment, water treatment efficiency


Ecoterra, no. 26, pp. 165-174, 2011
EUROPEAN STRATEGY FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH
STRATEGIA EUROPEANĂ DE MEDIU ŞI SĂNĂTATE

Georgeta MODIGA
Universitatea Danubius Galaţi

Abstract: European strategy for the environment and health. Sustainable development represents a need for responsability and education for environment protection, and this aspect is related to the evolution of the communitare politics in recent years. In some countries have appeared green political parties, with a real success in the political arena.
Key words: politics, environment, sustainable development, health, pollutants


Ecoterra, no. 26, pp. 175-186, 2011
BIOLOGICAL CLEANING PROCESSES MODELLING
MODELAREA PROCESELOR DE EPURARE BIOLOGICĂ

Ruben CRIŞAN, Ioan NAŞCU, Bogdan MUREŞAN, Silviu FOLEA
Universitatea Tehnică din Cluj-Napoca, Catedra de Automatică

Abstract: Biological cleaning processes modelling. The paper presents two models of wastewaters biological cleaning processes. First of them is a simplified model which includes an aerobe zone and one clarifying tank for sludge. The second model is based on ASM1 (Activated Sludge Models No. 1) made by IWA (International Water Association) and it comprises one process which takes place in two linked basins (one of them is aerobe and the other is anaerobe) and the clarifying tank for sludge. The results are highlighted through simulations.
Key words: wastewater, sludge, aeration, model


Copyright © Icpe Bistrita