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PRIMA PAGINĂ ECOTERRA NUMĂRUL 8(27)/2011


Ecoterra, no. 27, pp. 1-10, 2011
STUDIES AND RESEARCHES ON THE USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN DESIGNING FACILITIES FOR THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF EXCESS WATER IN RURAL AREAS
STUDII SI CERCETARI ASUPRA ELIMINARII EXCESULUI DE APA DIN ZONELE RURALE

Severin CĂZĂNESCU
Land Reclamation and Environmental Engineering Faculty, USAMV-FIFIM Bucharest

During the last decade, the information technology has been increasingly developed and has penetrated many fields of activity. One of these fields is mathematical modeling and Computer Aided Design which has benefited a lot from information technology support in Romania. Civil engineers and land development experts need a cheap and reliable method to assess the terrain condition before carrying out a new land reclamation project. The introduction of these new design techniques and technologies, based on the use of computer aided design in the study schedule has as objective the increase of studies efficiency and the raising of the graduates professional requirements to the existing level in European Union.


Ecoterra, no. 27, pp. 11-14, 2011
THE EVOLUTION, DEFINITION AND ROLE OF EIS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION STRATEGIES
EVOLUŢIA, DEFINIREA ŞI ROLUL SISTEMELOR INFORMATICE DE MEDIU ÎN DEZVOLTAREA STRATEGIILOR PENTRU PROTECŢIA MEDIULUI

Bogdan CIORUŢA, Mirela COMAN
Universitatea de Nord Baia Mare

Environmental information and environmental information systems play an important role in decision-making in the field, being closely linked with environmental requirements in decades. This paper is a review of EISs development history focusing on the creation, management and utilization. It is basing on multitude data in the computer, environment www and other database – that explores the typology and terminology specific aspects of “environmental informatics”. The discussion on EISs aims not only to describe them or a part of them, but to identify characteristic attributes that allowed passage of environmental data to environmental information, and from EISs to environmental informatics (EI).


Ecoterra, no. 27, pp. 15-18, 2011
PRINCIPLES CONCERNING THE ECOLOGICAL AGRICULTURE
PRINCIPII REFERITOARE LA AGRICULTURA ECOLOGICĂ

Bodan CIORUŢA, Mirela COMAN
Universitatea de Nord Baia Mare

Environment and natural resources must be recognized as the foundation of all kind of human activities, their protection being a prerequisite for development. Sustainable development of agriculture ecosystems and the ability to produce the best quality food can be considered one of the most significant contributions of agriculture to ensuring the future of mankind. This paper presents the history of the concept, in accordance with the requirements, concerns and the future trends, highlighting the crucial role of ecological agriculture both in environmental protection, as well as social and economic sectors.


Ecoterra, no. 27, pp. 19-24, 2011
THE PRESENCE OF RADIOACTIVE I-131 FROM FUKUSHIMA IN NORTH-WEST OF ROMANIA
PREZENŢA I-131 RADIOACTIV DE LA FUKUSHIMA ÎN NV-UL ROMÂNIEI

Constantin COSMA, Andra-Rada IURIAN, Dan Constantin NIŢĂ, Robert BEGY
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa şi Ingineria Mediului
Ciprian CÎNDEA
Departamentul de Sănătate Publică a judeţului Cluj

Following the radioactive fallout from Fukushima NPP, the fission products activities had been analyzed for rainwater and milk in the North-West of Romanian territory, during the period 28 of March, 2011 – 19th of April, 2011. 131I was the first radionuclide detected in rainwater from Cluj-Napoca, in 28 of March 2011. In April 5, 2011, the sheep milk registered a maximum activity of 9.22±0.95 Bq/l in Cluj area. Could be concluded that the maximum level of radioiodine concentration in the NW region of Romania has appeared around 4th of April, 2011. The radioactive fallout from Fukushima NPP was insignificant, considering the maximum admitted levels for 131I, 137Cs and 134Cs and the level of natural background.


Ecoterra, no. 27, pp. 25-32, 2011
THE PRESENT SITUATION OF INDOOR RADON MEASUREMENTS AND THE PERSPECTIVE OF REMEDIATION ACTIONS IN BăIţA-BIHOR (ROMANIA) MINING AREA
SITUAŢIA ACTUALǍ A MǍSURǍTORILOR DE RADON INDOOR ŞI PERSPECTIVA ACŢIUNILOR DE REMEDIERE ÎN ZONA MINIERǍ BǍIŢA-BIHOR (ROMÂNIA)

Alexandra CUCOŞ (DINU), C. COSMA, T. DICU, B. PAPP, D. C. NIŢǍ, R. BEGY, M. MOLDOVAN, C. CÎNDEA, D. FULEA
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa şi Ingineria Mediului
C. SAINZ
Universitatea Cantabria, Facultatea de Medicinǎ, Santander, Spania

Radon inside buildings represents the main source of human exposure to ionizing radiation in the world. Studies in many countries have shown that high levels of indoor radon increases the risk of lung cancer. The present research refers to a complete monitoring of indoor radon levels of Bǎiţa area, Transylvania, Romania, in the near of old Romanian uranium mines. Previous measurements indicated here elevated levels of radon with concentrations one order of magnitude higher than those measured in homes located in non-radon-prone areas. About 30% of the measured values are significantly higher than the recommended level of 200 Bq/m3. It is recognized as impossible to completely eliminate exposure to radon, only to limit exposure to it. The critical situation requires a detailed monitoring of all houses in Bǎiţa area in order implementing methods to reduce indoor radon levels. To measure radon concentration in dwellings, we use the passive method of nuclear track detectors, CR 39, supplemented by continuous monitoring of radon using SARAD, Radim, Rad7 and AlphaGUARD dosimeters.


Ecoterra, no. 27, pp. 33-36, 2011
GAMMA SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSES OF DIFFERENT SAMPLES FROM CLUJ-NAPOCA, ROMANIA, AFTER THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT
ANALIZA GAMMA-SPECTROMETRICA A UNOR PROBE DIN CLUJ-NAPOCA, ROMANIA, DUPA ACCIDENTUL DE LA CERNOBIL

Andra-Rada IURIAN
Babeş-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Werner HOFMANN, Herbert LETTNER
Division of Biophysics, 5020 Salzburg, Austria
Constantin COSMA
Babeş-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca, Romania

After the Chernobyl accident from April 26, 1986, were released into the atmosphere a large variety of fission products. Consequence of the atmosphere contamination and of the wet deposition of the radionuclides occurs into the soil contamination with artificial radionuclides, during May 1986. Romania was one of the most contaminated country from Europe and, therefore, the consequences of this accident still persist in soil and in perennial plants from these territories. After 20 years from the sampling, the sediment from Cluj-Napoca, collected on May 17, 1986, showed a concentration of 203829.8±75 Bq/kg for 137Cs. The smallest caesium activity was found in sand.


Ecoterra, no. 27, pp. 37-44, 2011
LIGHT BULBS. EVOLUTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK
BECURI. EVOLUŢIE ŞI RELAŢIA CU MEDIUL

Petre OGRUŢAN, Lia Elena ACIU
Universitatea TRANSILVANIA Braşov, Departamentul de Electronică şi Calculatoare
Liviu SUCIU
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.

The problems of saving energy and energy efficency are vital for the human being nowadays. The educational system has the purpose of preparing youngsters for the following challenges, in a way that the environmental care will be constant in their professional activity. The authors have directed their attention on engineering education because the future engineers are the ones who will be responsable for the technological decisions of the future.
In this paper, a new direction is approached where the engineering knowledge is entertwined with requests for a clean environment. The problem of the energy efficiency of lighting was combined with the problem raised by the effects on the environment, both from the point of view of electromagnetic compatibility, as well as the risk of throwing waste. Three types of light bulbs are described- inscandescent, fluorescent and with LEDs. The method proposed for measuring the efficiency of the bulb is by analyzing the hystogram of an image. At the end of the paper are presented the results of a poll regarding the scholar activity.


Ecoterra, no. 27, pp. 45-48, 2011
SOME CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING THE VEGETATION FROM PROTECTED AREAS FROM BISTRIţA CITY (BISTRIţA-NăSăUD COUNTY, ROMANIA)
UNELE CONSIDERAŢII CU PRIVIRE LA VEGETAŢIA ARIILOR PROTEJATE DIN MUNICIPIUL BISTRIŢA (BISTRIŢA-NĂSĂUD, ROMÂNIA)

Cristina RUSU, Claudiu GAVRILOAIE
Colegiul Tehnic INFOEL Bistriţa

The Bistriţa town is the main town of the Bistriţa-Năsăud county. It still keeps an important surface consisting in green spaces and forests. Ampng the green spaces within the city, there are two important protected areas: Municipal Park Bistriţa and the Dendrological Park of „Liviu Rebreanu” National College from Bistriţa.


Ecoterra, no. 27, pp. 49-52, 2011
ISSUES ON VEGETATION AND FAUNA IN COLENTINA RIVER FROM BUCHAREST
ASPECTE PRIVIND VEGETAŢIA ŞI FAUNA RÂULUI COLENTINA PE TRASEUL DIN MUNICIPIUL BUCUREŞTI (ROMÂNIA)

Stelian Valentin STĂNESCU
Universitatea Ecologică din Bucureşti
Claudiu GAVRILOAIE
Colegiul Tehnic INFOEL Bistriţa

Bucharest is crossed by Colentina  river, which, since 1933 has suffered a series of changes designed to regulate the river, to create a chain of lakes and to bring material and spiritual benefits to the Bucharest city population. Thus the river became a chain of lakes that is home to several species of fish, both native and alien, but also birds, reptiles and amphibians. In this paper we wish to make a brief review of these species and to briefly describe the current state of Colentina river.


Ecoterra, no. 27, pp. 53-56, 2011
ASPECTS CONCERNING THE COLENTINA RIVER WATER QUALITY IN BUCHAREST CITY (ROMANIA)
ASPECTE ALE CALITĂŢII APEI RÂULUI COLENTINA PE TRASEUL DIN MUNICIPIUL BUCUREŞTI (ROMÂNIA)

Stelian Valentin STĂNESCU
Universitatea Ecologică din Bucureşti

Colentina river has the greatest water amount from Bucharest territory. On its edges there are several parks, gardens and houses. The river water is used for the industry from the eastern side of the capital, also for irrigations and even for human consumption. In the lakes on the Colentina river there is also a piscicultural usage. A normal questions arises: “how good is this water?”. In this paper we have tried to answer this question as good as possible.


Ecoterra, no. 27, pp. 57-64, 2011
MODERN NUMERICAL MODELLING METHODS AND COMPUTER SIMULATION OF OZONE CONTACTING SYSTEMS FOR WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
METODE MODERNE ÎN MODELAREA ŞI SIMULAREA FUNCŢIONĂRII TREPTELOR DE OZONIZARE PENTRU STAŢIILE DE TRATARE A APEI

Sorin Claudiu ULINICI, Grigore VLAD, Dumitru Vâju, Liviu SUCIU
S. C. ICPE Bistriţa S. A.

Nowadays, the oxidation processes of water pollutants and disinfection of water using ozone became one of the most used technology in water treatment. High oxidation potential of ozone (2.07 V), and its unique ability to initiate high reactive hidroxile radicals (OHo) chain formation in aqueous solutions, generates a lot of applications in the environmental field. The ozone is an excellent selective oxidant regarding the organics  micropollutants, the metallic ions and the heavy metalls. Also, it is a very efficient disinfection agent, with no residual toxic byproducts.
The main technological stage in every ozone water treatment system is the O3/water contacting system. The basics of this stage are the physical and chemical processes, including transport processes, gas/liquid mass transfer processes, transport phenomena and chemical reactions.
This paper presents an integrated mathematical model based on the principle of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) along with the kinetics of the ozone decay to predict the performance of the fine bubble column contactors. The turbulence effect induced by the gas injection was modelled by increasing the level of turbulence intensity at the ozone contactor inlet. The subject of this modelling was an ozone contacting systems with 3.6 m3/h water flow and inlet ozone concentrations in carrier gas (dry air) being in the range 5...25 gO3/h. For the column contactors, the  operationg pressure  was up to 1 bar(g). The results were used  as input data for the design of a real scale water treatment system. The results were used as input data for the design of a real scale water treatment system. The predicted profile of the residual ozone concentration suggests the current operating strategy can be improved to optimise the ozone utilization.


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