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PRIMA PAGINĂ ECOTERRA NUMĂRUL 8(28)/2011


Ecoterra, no. 28, pp. 1-4, 2011
ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION ALONG THE STREAM WATER COURSES IN THE ERZSéBETBáNYA (BăIUţ) CATCHMENT, ROMANIA
STUDIUL CONTAMINĂRILOR ÎN REŢEAUA HIDROGRAFICĂ A ZONEI BĂIUŢ (MARAMUREŞ, ROMÂNIA) CAUZATE DE EXPLOATAREA MINEREURILOR NEFEROASE

Julianna ALBERT, Gyozo JORDAN
Institutul Geologic al Ungariei

Heavy metal contamination and acidification by Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) causes serious environmental deterioration at numerous abandoned mine waste sites in Romania. Contamination risk assessment along the source-pathway-receptors chain is a requirement by new EU legislation on mining. Heavy metal contamination along the stream water courses in the Erzsébetbánya (Băiuţ) mining area, near to Baia Mare is investigated. Water samples were collected in summer of 2009 and they were analysed for dissolved heavy metal content. In this study Pb, Cu and Zn concentrations were found above national and international environmental standards. Based on the collected samples it was possible to describe the role of natural geochemical background and pollution due to historic mining.


Ecoterra, no. 28, pp. 5-14, 2011
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF POLLUTANTS DISPERSION PROCESSES IN DANUBE RIVER
SIMULAREA NUMERICA A PROCESULUI DE DISPERSIE A POLUANTILOR IN FLUVIUL DUNARE

Luminiţa Constanţa ANDREI
Ministry of Environment and Forests, Direction of Pollution Control and Impact Assessment

Numerical simulation program FlexPDE achieved in this work possible to estimate the distance that the river will be polluted from the discharge of pollutants and assess the degree of pollution of the river section affected by wave. Basically it is possible to track the time and space of the concentration of pollutants, providing warning of possible effects they may have discharges of pollutants into the Danube, depending on the quantity of substances discharged, coordinates source pollution, rainfall and ambient temperature. As a result of numerical simulations carried out is apparent dispersion of the pollutant concentration, and because of self-purification capacity of the river Danube. The present model can be a useful tool for assessing pollution or pollution prediction could be done to manage situations that arise.


Ecoterra, no. 28, pp. 15-22, 2011
THE PRODUCTION OF WOOD BIOMASS IN CASE OF FOREST CALAMITIES – BISTRIţA-NăSăUD COUNTY
PRODUCŢIA DE BIOMASĂ LEMNOASĂ ÎN CAZUL CALAMITĂŢILOR FORESTIERE ÎN JUDEŢUL BISTRIŢA-NĂSĂUD

Mihaela BEGEA, Corina Berkesy
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A..
László BERKESY
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa şi Ingineria Mediului
Mircea Craciun
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A..
Savir MOISIL
I.T.R.S.V. Bistriţa
Danila Vlad
O.S. Josenii Bârgăului
Dorel Cleja
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A..

Such natural phenomena as strong-winded storms, massive snow falls, avalanches and torrential rains followed by violent high floods entail forest damages. These past few years, these phenomena are characterised by an increased frequency and intensity. The forests and their long-lasting management represent a major priority of the national and international forest-related policies and strategies. A long-lasting forest management requires accurate information on the condition thereof, which should be updated on a yearly basis and provided on the long run, at a large scale and by intense monitoring. This work presents the measures taken in case of the accidental forest products resulted from the wind blow-downs happened in the Bistriţa-Năsăud county in 2007 and in the Rodna Mountains National Park between 2007 and 2010. The work also describes the methods of eliminating the affected biomass in those areas in order to avoid the action in time of such biotic factors as the insect and mushroom attacks. For continuing preventing the wind and snow breaks and downfalls, special importance is deemed to be paid to the care taking works, namely to cleaning and thinning out, which should be performed as early and intensely as possible and within ecologically allowed limits.


Ecoterra, no. 28, pp. 23-30, 2011
CONSIDERATIONS ON THE FOREST-DERIVED BIOMASS PRODUCTION
ASPECTE ALE PRODUCŢIEI DE BIOMASĂ PROVENITĂ DIN PĂDURI

Corina BERKESY, Mihaela BEGEA
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.
László BERKESY
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa şi Imgineria Mediului
Mircea CRĂCIUN, Mihaela ANDREICA, Maria SOMEŞAN
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.

The regenerative energy resources represent a new opportunity in Romania, with perspectives of developing themselves in the future. At present, in Romania but small-scaled, pending developing pilot projects or small companies could be mentioned. The capitalisation of the regenerative energy resources could contribute to the putting into practice of strategies regarding the enhancement of the energy security by the diversification of the energetic resources and the imports reduction. This work presents certain issues on the technologies of extracting the wood biomass from forests, some methods of obtaining products from this kind of biomass, such as firewood, briquettes and pellets, and on the utilisation of the Romanian wood biomass as an energy resource, as this one is taken as a long-lasting and environmentally friendly source of energy.


Ecoterra, no. 28, pp. 31-36, 2011
NECESSITY TO REVISE INSTRUCTION TO THE FISHING RESOURCES INJURY ASSESSMENT
NECESITATEA REVEDERII INSTRUCŢIUNII DE EVALUARE A PREJUDICIULUI ADUS RESURSELOR PISCICOLE

Dionisie BUBURUZ
Institutul de Ecologie şi Geografie al Academiei de Ştiinţe a Moldovei şi al Ministerului Mediului din Republica Moldova

Analysis of the normative act "Instruction on the assessment of injury to fishery resources in aquatic basins of RM", approved by Order MECDT no. 206 of 07.10.203, published in Monitor 150-155 (1504-1509) of 20.08.2004 showed that the method is incorrect. It proposes a new paradigm for calculating productivity loss correlating with surface water bodies existing spawns degraded surface.


Ecoterra, no. 28, pp. 37-42, 2011
PROTECTION OF AIR QUALITY THROUGH GREENING TECHNOLOGY USING COAL
PROTECŢIA CALITĂŢII AERULUI PRIN ECOLOGIZAREA TEHNOLOGIILOR DE UTILIZARE A CĂRBUNELUI (DIRECTIVA CE 2008/50)

Dionisie BUBURUZ
Institutul de Ecologie şi Geografie al Academiei de Ştiinţe a Moldovei şi al Ministerului Mediului din Republica Moldova

Large reserves of coal of inferior quality have stimulated interest in scientific research in the greening process of preparation and coal combustion and flue gas purification. Scientific and technological achievements allow the use of coal as an energy agent quite competitive economically and environmentally. Implementation of modern cooking and burning of coal will allow utuilizarea extensively for energy production.


Ecoterra, no. 28, pp. 43-48, 2011
RADON AND THORON SIMULTANEOUS MEASUREMENTS USING TRACK DETECTORS – CURRENT SITUATION IN THE WORLD
MĂSURAREA SIMULTANĂ A RADONULUI ŞI TORONULUI CU DETECTORI DE URME – SITUAŢIA ACTUALĂ ÎN LUME

Bety-Denissa BURGHELE, Constantin COSMA
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa şi Ingineria Mediului

In recent years, there has been increased interest in the exposure of the general population to thoron in their homes. This has been stimulated by the development of new passive techniques to make accurate long-term measurements of both thoron and its progeny. It is estimated that doses from thoron and its progeny account for between 5 and 10 % of the annual dose received by the general population in many countries. In comparison with data on indoor radon, the global database for indoor thoron is much less extensive. Long-term surveys of indoor thoron and its airborne progeny in a number of countries as well as developments in thoron dosimetry have shown that doses from the thoron series can no longer be considered as negligible. To more accurately assess the public health impact of indoor thoron, there is a need for improvements in passive methods to measure thoron progeny and also for the establishment of agreed measurement protocols. Improvements in the calibration of thoron and progeny detectors as well as in the validation of data are also required.


Ecoterra, no. 28, pp. 49-56, 2011
IMPROVEMENTS OF THE WASTEWATERS PURIFICATION TECHNOLOGY AT THE PURGING STATION NEAR THE SIGHIşOARA NON-HAZARDOUS WASTE MATERIALS STOREHOUSE
ÎMBUNĂTĂŢIRI ALE TEHNOLOGIEI DE EPURARE A LEVIGATULUI LA STAŢIA DE EPURARE DE PE LÂNGĂ DEPOZITUL DE DEŞEURI NEPERICULOASE SIGHIŞOARA

Mircea CRĂCIUN, Corina BERKESY, Marioara ŞANDRU, Dana IGNAT, Maria SOMEŞAN
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.

The wastewaters at the municipal domestic waste materials storehouse are generally characterised by a high concentration of organic substances and ammonia and they contain potentially toxic substances, whose features are very likely to change in the course of time. In case of the wastewaters, the biological purification as an efficient step within the purification technology is difficult to achieve because of the toxicity of the highly concentrated ammonia compounds and of their coexistence with organic substances that have an inhibiting effect on the microbial activity.
Given the complex composition of the wastewaters, the age of the storehouse and the fact that the technology used has not paid off in terms of biologically purging the water up to the values of the parameters foreseen in NTPA 001/2005, the necessity of modifying the work technology was considered, by introducing the flash distillation step for reducing the excess of ammonia, prior to the chemical step, and also the addition of active carbon during the biological step.
This work presents the results of the experiments made by using several variants of treatment, the technology applied in the laboratory, which supposes, in the physical-chemical treatment step, an initial step of pH adjustment and the flash distillation of the wastewaters for reducing the ammonia below the biological toxicity value and the improvement of the biological step by the addition of active carbon.


Ecoterra, no. 28, pp. 57-62, 2011
KEY ELEMENTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY IN THE ENVIRONMENT SECTOR OF CLUJ COUNTY
STRATEGIA DE MEDIU A JUDEŢULUI CLUJ PENTRU PERIOADA 2014-2020

József Attila DARABOS
Ungaria-Slovacia-România-Ucraina ENPI

This paper presents the key elements of the environmental strategy of Cluj county for the 2014-2020 timeframe. The county as the whole country is experiencing the first planning period with the European Structural Instruments 2007-2013. But works of preparation has beeen already started for the following seven years (2014-2020). The strategy contains the description of the present situation, a SWOT analysis and the new priorities and measures proposed. The crucial issues were chosen to be presented in order to have an overview about the topic in line with the ongoing European and national strategic papers.


Ecoterra, no. 28, pp. 63-66, 2011
A COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS OF A RESIDENTIAL RADON REMEDIATION PROGRAMME IN BăIţA-BIHOR (ROMANIA) MINING AREA
ANALIZA COST-BENEFICIU A PROGRAMULUI DE REMEDIERE A RADONULUI REZIDENŢIAL DIN ZONA MINIERĂ BĂIŢA-BIHOR (ROMANIA)

Tiberius DICU, Constantin COSMA, Alexandra CUCOŞ (DINU), Robert BEGY, Botond PAPP, Mircea MOLDOVAN, Dan Constantin NIŢĂ, Ciprian CÎNDEA, Dan FULEA
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa şi Ingineria Mediului
Carlos SAINZ
Universitatea Cantabria, Facultatea de Medicinǎ, Santander, Spania

Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is emitted from certain types of rock. Depending on geophysical conditions, radon can migrate from the soil through leakages in the building. On average, radon contributes with 50% to the natural background radiation dose. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the cost effectiveness of different intervention strategies to reduce radon concentrations in 20 dwellings in Băiţa area (Bihor). The analysis of cost-effectiveness, cost per life-year gained, is determined from radon test results obtained with the passive method of nuclear track detectors, CR-39. Combining the cost and outcome results reported in other studies (England, Germany), the cost per life-year gained is 1723 € with a collective dose reduction of 0,78 Man-Siverts per year for 60 occupants in 20 houses. 


Ecoterra, no. 28, pp. 67-70, 2011
NEW APPROACH OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS
NOI ABORDARI ALE REACTIILOR DE PERMEABILITATE PRIN BARIERE

Imre GOMBKÖTŐ
University of Miskolc, Institute of Raw Material Preparation and Environmental Process Engineering
János LAKATOS
Department of Chemie
Tamás MADARÁSZ
Institute of Environmental Management

There are many sites where soil and groundwater is contaminated with various types of hydrocarbons or heavy metals. Remediation and maintenance costs of these sites, such as abandoned industrial or military areas or tailing storage areas, could be enormous if active techniques are applied. If the circumstances of the contamination and site specific parameters make it possible, passive techniques, such as permeable reactive barriers (PRB) are also applicable for remediation of the site. Applying PRB’s have been widely accepted for treatment of organic and inorganic contaminants as well, while operation costs can be reduced dramatically. As a matrix material, zero valent iron, charcoal and different types of resins are generally used. Within the frame of this paper, authors are introducing a new approach of PRB system, where lignite as cheap and decent matrix material is used for remediation of groundwater contaminated with heavy metals.


Ecoterra, no. 28, pp. 71-74, 2011
THE STUDY OF SURFACE WATERS IN CHINTENI-VULTURENI REGION
STUDIUL APELOR DE SUPRAFAŢĂ ÎN REGIUNEA CHINTENI-VULTURENI

Zoltán HORVÁTH, Melinda VIGH, Greta MÂNDREAN
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa şi Ingineria Mediului
Domnica POP
Şcoala Generală nr. 7, Cluj-Napoca
Ioana BORODAN
Partidul Ecologist Român
Liviu SUCIU, Mihaela ANDREICA
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.

The reduction of the polluting surfaces from the Chinteni-Vultureni region conducted to the amelioration in the surface waters quality, but only around the Vultureni village, because on the higher slopes of the Chinteni fleet, the environmental pollution had a continuous increase. The pollution has its origin in the antropic activity of the new habitants, coming from the city. They do not consider the fact that the contaminated waters with launder or oils do not filter through an epuration system and although can not be ejected into the environment. The new ecological procedures and an epuration system could be the major contributors to the reduction of the antropic pollution in territory. The surface waters from the study area had very different values of the pH, ranging from 5.2 to 8.4.


Ecoterra, no. 28, pp. 75-78, 2011
THE STUDY OF THE SURFACE WATERS IN LUJERDIULUI VALLEY
STUDIUL APELOR DE SUPRAFAŢĂ ÎN VALEA LUJERDIULUI

Zoltán HORVÁTH, Melinda VIGH
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa şi Ingineria Mediului
Liviu SUCIU, Daniela STANCIU, Mihaela ANDREICA
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A.
Ildikó BARTALIS
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa şi Ingineria Mediului
Timea GURZÓ
S.C. Agro Luna de Sus
Ioan SABO
S.C. BETAK Bistriţa

Surrounded by moderate hills, the Lujerdiu Creek can be seen as an unpolluted stream. The agricultural activity is relatively small, so a few pollutant factors can be found as having anthropogenic origin. For local population, the pollution issue is overcoming the daily living problems. The Lujerdiu Creek presents some particular aspects that attracted our attention. On the slopes without vegetation, the rainwater is flowing freely. In effect, there are major differences between level and flow of the surrounding streams. On the often steeply slopes, the negative effect of the wind erosion is more dramatic than rain erosion. The downstream pH values presents a relative descendant trend, between 7.8 and 5.4 starting from the confluence with Somesul Mic River.


Ecoterra, no. 28, pp. 79-84, 2011
FALLOUT RADIONUCLIDES (FRNS) USED IN SOIL REDISTRIBUTION STUDIES
RADIONUCLIZI (FRN) UTILIZAŢI ÎN STUDII DE REDISTRIBUIRE A SOLULUI

Andra-Rada IURIAN, Constantin COSMA
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa şi Ingineria Mediului

Soil erosion is a serious environmental problem. Traditional methods used to measure soil erosion are time consuming and usually engage many costs. Due to their fixation on soil particles, the fallout radionuclides (FRNs) 137Cs, 210Pb and 7Be are being found the most suitable soil tracers over a range of different timescales to obtain quantitative information on soil erosion and sediment redistribution rates. Beginning with the early 1960s, most of the studies are based on 137Cs technique. The FRN methodology used to determine soil redistribution rates is based on a comparison between the radionuclides inventories for the sampling points with the inventory at the reference area. This simple comparison allows appreciating soil redistribution pattern, erosion and deposition areas.
Many models for erosion/deposition evaluation have been developed in the past years, based on empirical or theoretical considerations. It is very important to distinguish cultivated and uncultivated soils in making the selection of the proper model to be applied for a specific field. Using mathematical models requires additional parameters, which can severely bias the results of soil erosion calculations, if not accurate chosen. The present work makes a review of the FRNs techniques which can be employed in soil redistribution studies, using different radionuclides for cultivated or uncultivated fields, also considering the influence of the involved parameters.


Ecoterra, no. 28, pp. 85-94, 2011
KOLONTAR RED MUD DAM, HUNGARY - A PREVIOUS MINERALOGICAL STUDY OF DAM FORMING CONCRETE
STUDIUL MICROSCOPIC PRELIMINAR AL BETONULUI FORMÂND DIGUL IAZULUI DE DECANTARE DE LA KOLONTÁR, UNGARIA

Ioan KALMÁR, Ubul FÜGEDI, Ildikó SZENTPÉTERY
Institutul Geologic al Ungariei, Budapesta

In October 4, 2010, by the disrupted concrete dam from Kolontár (Hungary), a few hundred thousand alcalyne, iron oxyde bearing mud had flooded into three localities, with immense material and environmental damages. For know the presumed causes of havaria, the state of the concrete dams, i.e. the mineralogy-petrography of them was analysed. In this paper the results of preliminary study, based mainly on optical microscopy is resumed.
The macroscopically observed deformations, and the wall structure close to the dam rupture were analysed in an other paper.
Thirty two samples from four sectors of untouched, stable dam body was sectioned. On a part of its X-ray and chemical analyses were performed. In slides, the detrital components, the basal material with the figurative elements and the secondary, void filling mineral phases were identified.
The microscopy confirms, that main part of the dams was built up by burning rests of coal power plants: cinder, fly ash, fired shale and coal fragments. The carbonatic-silicious, optical amorphous basal and bonding material contains sphaerical and moruloid, fine grained, darker figurative elements of 10-30 μm in diameter, which may be fly ash particles, crystallization nucley or relics of klinker powder from cement laitance. In concrete samples, the amount of natural sand grains is low, representing only a few percents.
The secondary mineral phasis appears in slides mainly as anisotropic, very fine grained impregnation. In some samples, by X-ray analysis, carbonates, alumo-silicates and sulpho-silicates were identified. Among them, the carbonates (calcite, dolomite) and the ettringite, forming crystals of 0,05-0,20 mm were recognised by optical means. These grains has crystallized from a colloidal phasis during of the fastening of concrete aggregate. The here visible, final fastening process of concrete consists mainly by colloid dehydratation, resulting a polyhedron network of contraction fissures. These fissures are older, that the anisotropic impregnation and were followed, in time, by removing of iron oxyde.
Apart of them, the pore and vein fillings as gypsum, limonite and opale have formed in hard, brittle concrete, after its fastening. The amount of them is under 1% of dam material.
The empty or carbonate filled, hair like, branched fractures constitute an other generation of deformation, resulting from local, tensional fields in dam body. Insumming our observations, the marks of volume variation and the brittle deformation caused by them in „healty” dam are insignificant and do not may be correlate with any mineralogical changes.
The full pallet of mineralogical chemical changes will be presented in further HyTech instrumental investigations, focused mainly to the pieces of the disrupted dam.


Ecoterra, no. 28, pp. 95-100, 2011
PORTABLE ASD-TERRASPEC VNIR-SWIR SPECTRORADIOMETER APPLICATIONS IN MONITORING STRESS VEGETATION
APLICAŢIILE SPECTROMETRULUI PORTABIL ASD TERRASPEC VNIR-SWIR ÎN MONITORIZAREA STRESULUI VEGETAŢIEI

Adina-Laura LAZĂR, Călin BACIU, Ioan Cristian POP
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa şi Ingineria Mediului

The development of remote sensing of the Earth has been heavily dependent on the creation of new tools for data acquisition and analysis. Portable ASD spectroradiometers are important tools and are widely used for spectral measurements in many scientific fields and for validation of satellite and airborne spectral imaging, for more precise image analysis and interpretation. The remarkable thing in imaging spectrometry and remote sensing is that details that are not visible to the human eye can be detected. As an example, one can identify spectra for different types of minerals or can monitor stress vegetation by observing the change in pigmentation, moisture content and cellular structure of vegetation. Aside from remote sensing applications, field spectrometers are used to make direct material identifications in the field rather than collecting samples for later laboratory analysis. In this presentation, the discussion will be limited to: monitoring stress vegetation, by using Field ASD spectroradiometer.


Ecoterra, no. 28, pp. 101-106, 2011
SIMULATION OF SLUDGE FLOW THROUGH THE ANAEROBIC DIGESTER OF CONSTANţA SOUTH WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT
SIMULAREA CURGERII NĂMOLULUI PRIN METANTANCUL DIN STAŢIA DE EPURARE CONSTANŢA SUD

Elena MANEA (STREITFERDT)
S.C. RAJA S.A. Constanţa
Aurel PRESURĂ
Universitatea Politehnică Bucureşti
Doru Lucian MANEA, Dan ROBESCU
S.C. RAJA S.A. Constanţa

The sludge resulting from biological treatment step in wastewater treatment is an active material immediately starts to ferment under anaerobic conditions. Anaerobic digestion is a common process in wastewater treatment due to lower operating costs. Due to the necessary enclosed conditions, it’s difficult to estimate the flow process in a full-scale anaerobic digester. The simulations aim to determine the optimal mixer type that can be used in order to obtain a homogenous environment in the anaerobic digester.


Ecoterra, no. 28, pp. 107-112, 2011
AFFORESTATION OF DEGRADED LANDS - THE KEY OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
ÎMPĂDURIREA TERENURILOR DEGRADATE - CHEIA DEZVOLTĂRII DURABILE

Florin MILĂŞAN, Ioan DUNCA
Primăria Rîciu-Mureş
Olga DUNCA
Gimnaziul de Stat Gh. Şincai-Rîciu
Raluca-Ionela CHERTES
Grupul Şcolar Traian Vuia Tg. Mureş

In the spirit of the objective regarding the expansion of forest area, from the strategy of sustainable forestry development in Romania, there have been intensified the actions of land identification for acquisition of degraded forests and their afforestation. Unfortunately in the plains area, the layer of soil, whose main feature is to ensure plant life, and hence man’s life loses in some cases all or a part of its productive capacity, becoming a degraded land. 


Ecoterra, no. 28, pp. 113-118, 2011
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE AERATION PROCESSES IN THE SEWAGE SYSTEM
SIMULAREA NUMERICĂ A PROCESELOR DE AERARE ÎN REŢEAUA DE CANALIZARE

Cătălina Raluca MOCANU
Universitatea Politehnica Bucureşti

The paper presents a new method, currently unused, for the practical application of the sewage network as a wastewater pre-treatment stage. This can be achieved by using alternative aeration systems along the sewage system, which lead to alternative aerobic and anaerobic areas and allow the development of the biological processes. The microorganisms that occurred partially decompose the organic pollutants from the wastewater in the sewage system. Besides the rationally and efficiently used of the sewage system for facilitating the operation of the wastewater treatment plant, another important advantage is the modified gaseous medium that lead to quickly and safety interventions of the operators in the sewage network, without danger. In this paper the mathematical model and numerically simulations are presented, which were done to obtain the optimum horizontally distribution of aeration equipment in aerobic zones and the optimum length of aerobic and anaerobic zones. Also same experimental data will be presented.


Ecoterra, no. 28, pp. 119-126, 2011
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF POLLUTANT DISPERSION IN NATURAL STREAMS
SIMULAREA NUMERICĂ A DISPERSIEI POLUANŢILOR ÎN CURSURILE NATURALE

Cătălina Raluca MOCANU, Delia FODOR
Universitatea Politehnica Bucureşti

In the paper authors propose a suitable model for dispersion of accidental pollution in natural streams. This model is a necessary tool for predicting the evolution of pollutant in the aquatic medium and environmental impact assessment. In general, the largest shares of potential pollution sources in the case of punctiform discharges are units belonging to utilities sectors, chemical industries, life stock farms, agriculture fertilizers. In the paper authors will describe the mathematical model and the numerical simulation of pollution wave spatial evolution in Arges and Dambovita Rivers in different sectors. 


Ecoterra, no. 28, pp. 127-136, 2011
USING CFD SOFTWARE FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT INSTALLATIONS REFURBISHMENT
UTILIZAREA PROGRAMELOR CFD PENTRU RETEHNOLOGIZAREA INSTALAŢIILOR DE EPURARE

Cătălina Raluca MOCANU, Răzvan MIHĂILESCU
Universitatea Politehnica Bucureşti

In this paper the authors presents the need to modernize the aeration equipments used in biological reactors of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The basic requirements for the correct operation of the biological reactor are to provide enough oxygen for the biochemical degradation of the organic matter and maintaining the state of activated sludge suspension flocs. The oxygen mass transfer from air to water is essential in biological processes due to high energy consumption of the aeration equipments. In the present paper the authors presents a comparative study over the aeration processes in the biological reactors before and after refurbishment of Targoviste City WWTP.


Ecoterra, no. 28, pp. 137-140, 2011
RADON AND RADIUM CONCENTRATION IN SOME WATERS FROM MăGURI RăCăTăU AREA, CLUJ COUNTY
MĂSURĂTORI DE RADON ŞI RADIU ÎN UNELE APE DIN ZONA MĂGURI RĂCĂTĂU, JUDEŢUL CLUJ

Mircea MOLDOVAN, Dan COSTIN, Constantin COSMA
Universitatea Babeş Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa şi Ingineria Mediului
Teofana SFERLE
Liceul UCECOM “Spiru Haret”, Cluj-Napoca

Rn222 (radon) from Ra226 (radium) and two other natural isotopes of Rn219 (actinon) and Rn220 (thoron) are present in any rock formation in the soil, in groundwater and in the atmosphere.  In this paper are presented the measurements of radium and radon concentration in different types of water (surface, springs, wells). The measurements of radon were made using the LUK-VR system that is based on radon gas measurement with Lucas cell. The radium concentration was determined directly, after the radon balanced with radium. The purpose of this study is to find a correlation between geological structure and radon concentration in this area. The substrate has a very complex geological and structural lithologic. This solid foundation is the old crystalline rocks (in cycles and baikalian prebaikalian Orogen), their degree of metamorphosis increases from the periphery to the center. The crystalline axis of the foundation was injected a strong form of granite table batholitic huge granite, known as Big Mountain. The radon was measured in 10 water samples taken from different points of interest in Măguri Răcătău area, Cluj county. The results show that the radon concentrations are within the range of 27 Bql-1 and 126 Bql-1 with an average value of 61,98 Bql-1 for all types of water. Radium concentration was determined in 10 samples of waters. The results show that the radium concentrations are within the range of 50 mBql-1 and 250 mBql-1. It is worth mentioning that almost all samples measured in this study are in fact drinking waters except for the surface water. The dose was between 20-121 µSv/y, has been assessed from the value of concentration supposing a daily consumption of 1 liter. From the results of these measurements, a correlation may be observed between the radon concentration and the geological structure. In most of the cases, the measured values are high for drinking water.


Ecoterra, no. 28, pp. 141-148, 2011
COMPUTERS AND THE ENVIRONMENT, EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS
ASPECTE EDUCAŢIONALE ALE RELAŢIEI CALCULATOR-MEDIU

Petre OGRUŢAN
Universitatea TRANSILVANIA Braşov, Departamentul de Electronică şi Calculatoare
Liviu SUCIU
S.C. ICPE S.A. Bistriţa

The matter of personal computers interaction with the environment becomes more and more important, due to the higher number of produced computers and due to technological innovations that are shortening the computers usage time. The negative impact computers have to the environment consists in high energy consumption in the production process and in material waste when usage time ends and old units are dismantled. This article describes two methods that will diminish the negative impact old computer disposal has upon the environment. The first consist in increase the user’s responsibility in computer using, by increase the usage period or by using old units, and the second consist in new ecological materials in computers production process. The students were aware to this subject during the “peripheral equipment” course in the 4th year of computer science specialization. In the beginning and at the end of the course the students were asked to participate to an anonymous survey, whose results were analyzed in the article below.


Ecoterra, no. 28, pp. 149-154, 2011
INTEGRATED BIOTECHNOLOGIES WITH PHISICAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESSES OF URBAN WASTEWATER AND RESIDUAL SLUDGE TREATMENT TO BECOME REUSABLE
BIOTEHNOLOGII INTEGRATE CU PROCESE FIZICO-CHIMICE PENTRU EPURAREA APELOR UZATE ORĂŞENEŞTI ŞI PENTRU TRATAREA NĂMOLURILOR REZIDUALE ÎN VEDEREA REFOLOSIRII

Violeta-Monica RADU, Petra IONESCU
Institutul Naţional de Cercetare-Dezvoltare pentru Protecţia Mediului Bucureşti

Mechanical and biological treatment finally results in the elimination, in the first step, of the decanted solids and floating oils, and in the second step, in the biological elimination of most of the dissolved and suspended organic substances. Current procedures are unable to eliminate certain categories of impure substances, also called resistant or refractory. These refractory substances have adverse effects, primarily on human health (waterborne diseases, noninfectious diseases). In addition, they can also lead to unpleasant aesthetic effects in the emissaries into which they are discharged. Foaming primarily due to detergents, floating materials, excessive growth of algae, odors or water clogging of the emissary represent some of the unpleasant effects of refractory substances. Negative economic effects of refractory substances are also important. They produce corrosion of pipes or concrete basins, and rapidly alter ion exchangers, the biological treatment processes are inhibited, the doses of coagulants for water treatment need to be increased and the sedimentation speed is reduced, etc.
Composition of sludge from wastewater treatment plants is complex. It is rich in micro and macroelements, but may contain toxic compounds and pathogens. There are many ways of treating sludge resulting from wastewater treatment plants but, on this work, the method of composting sludge in combination with an organic substrate is described.


Ecoterra, no. 28, pp. 155-162, 2011
FLOODS MANAGEMENT IN BISTRIţA-NăSăUD COUNTY
MANAGEMENTUL INUNDAŢIILOR ÎN JUDEŢUL BISTRIŢA-NĂSĂUD

Cristina RUSU, Claudiu GAVRILOAIE
Colegiul Tehnic ,,Infoel” Bistriţa
Elena GIURGIU
Grup Şcolar Servicii Bistriţa

The floods are the most frequent natural hazards which affect our county and also our country, cumulating great material losses and, sometimes, with human lives lossing. In the present paper we try to know some elements of floods management and the semination of the results as well, in order to aware the population in regard of the importance of these kind of management actions. in the research period we have used several methods, as follows: geographical observation on the field and the literature survey as well, cartography, the interview, questionaries, geographical analisys, geographical description and sinthesys. In order to seminate the results, we have used the lectures, debates and conversations and we also realized the website http://inundatii.koltzu.net.


Ecoterra, no. 28, pp. 163-168, 2011
DEVELOPMENT OF INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN NORTH-WEST REGION
DEZVOLTAREA SISTEMELOR INTEGRATE DE GESTIONARE A DEŞEURILOR ÎN REGIUNEA NORD-VEST

Codruţa SIMULE, Marilena ROZENBERG, Traian TODUŢ
Ministerul Mediului şi Pădurilor, Organism Intermediar POS Mediu Cluj-Napoca, pt. Regiunea Nord-Vest

This paper presents the progress of major waste management projects financed by the European Regional Development Fund, under Priority Axis 2 "Development of integrated waste management and rehabilitation of historically contaminated sites" of the Sectoral Operational Program Environment. For the programming period 2007-2013, the funds allocated for financing the development of integrated waste management systems through SOP Environment is amounted to around 991 million Euros. In North-West Region are 3 approved projects and other 2 project are in evaluation. The implementation of these projects will have an influence in improving water, soil and air quality, as well as improving the living standards in this region.


Ecoterra, no. 28, pp. 169-174, 2011
THE TREATMENT AND THE DISPOSAL OF THE SLUDGE FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS
TRATAREA ŞI ELIMINAREA NĂMOLURILOR PROVENITE DE LA STAŢIILE DE EPURARE

Andrei STOICESCU
Universitatea Politehnică Bucureşti

In the past years, sludge from municipal waste water treatment plants became an issue in many international conferences, which reflects an awareness of the fact that the sludge produced is on an upward growing curve, while the quality requirements are more stringent, yet economic pressures require cheap solutions. This paper aims to present trends and technologies in the processing, recovery and disposal of sludge produced in municipal wastewater treatment plants.


Ecoterra, no. 28, pp. 175-180, 2011
INDOOR RADON EXPOSURE AND LUNG CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR THE POPULATION OF CLUJ AND BISTRIŢA-NĂSĂUD COUNTIES
EXPUNEREA LA RADONUL DIN INTERIOR SI EVALUAREA RISCULUI DE CANCER PULMONAR A POPULATIEI DIN JUDETELE CLUJ SI BISTRITA-NASAUD

Lucia-Adina TRUTA
Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Werner HOFMANN
Division of Physics and Biophysics, Department of Materials Research and Physics, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria
Constantin COSMA
Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Liviu SUCIU
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A., Bistriţa-Năsăud, Romania

Interest in estimating lung cancer risk induced by radon and its progeny has been increasing over time, especially in the last decades, because it was shown that, besides acute exposures, low residential exposures to ionizing radiation were also hazardous, exhibiting an elevated cancer risk. The regions investigated in this study were Cluj and Bistrita-Nasaud counties, located in Transylvania, Romania. The present study was conducted from 2005 until 2008 in a sample of 390 dwellings. The current estimates for the two Romanian counties are consistent with that of 2.2-12.4% of lung cancer deaths attributed to indoor radon exposure in France, with that of about of 8.44% in 13 European countries, with that of 11% reported in a recent combined analysis of North American studies and with that of 10-12% in the U.S.


Ecoterra, no. 28, pp. 181-186, 2011
THE USAGE OF ADVANCED PRE-OXIDATION IN THE PROCESS OF DRINKABLE WATER MAKING IN ORDER TO OBTAIN A BARIERE OF POLLUTANTS REDUCTION
UTILIZAREA PRE-OXIDĂRII AVANSATE ÎN PROCESUL DE OBŢINERE A APEI POTABILE ÎN SCOPUL OBŢINERII UNEI BARIERE MULTIPLE DE REDUCERE A POLUANŢILOR

Dumitru VÂJU
S.C. ICPE-Bistriţa S.A.
Iosif BALINT
I.S.P.E. - Filiala Timişoara
Sorin Claudiu ULINICI, Sever VARVARI
S.C. ICPE-Bistriţa S.A.

The present article presents the advanced pre-oxidation water treatment stage using multiple oxidants, as a component of drinking water treatment process. The purpose of using multi-oxidants-multi-barrier at this stage is to increase the effectiveness of water depolluting chemical reactions. By this, the iron ions, the manganese, ammonia, arsenic, humic acids, pesticides, herbicides, petroleum products, waste from drugs and cosmetics can be oxidized and the reaction products will be retained in the other water treatment process stages (like filtering and clarifying). At this pre-oxidation stage, the oxygen-generated ozone is mixed into the process water, and the other oxidants, like active oxygen, hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide, chlorine ions, are electrochemically generated by medium frequency pulsed electrolysis. The multi-oxidants advanced oxidation process involves smaller doses and a reaction time interval compared to the classic ozone pre-oxidation and improves the coagulation-flocculation and water filtering process.


Ecoterra, no. 28, pp. 187-192, 2011
TERMOLUMINESCENTE DOSIMETRY APPLICATIONS IN MEDICAL FIELD
APLICAŢII ALE DOZIMETRIEI PRIN TERMOLUMINESCENŢĂ ÎN DOMENIUL MEDICAL

Monica ZECIU DOLHA, Alida TIMAR GABOR, Daniela CONSTANTIN, Constantin COSMA
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ştiinţa şi Ingineria Mediului

Thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetric methods have been applied for dose measurements in interventional cardiology. The dose received by medical staff (two physiscians) as well as by four patients during the coronary procedure from the Cardiac Chatherization and Interventional Cardiology Laboratory, Heart Institute „Niculae Stăncioiu”, Cluj-Napoca has been measured using ultra-sensitive TL dosimeters LiF:Mg, Cu, P (Code MCP-N, produced by TLD Poland). The calibration (integral signal as function as given dose) of the dosimeters has been performed using a Cobalt-60 gamma source. The response was found to be linear, the goodness of fit being R²=0.998. For these dosimeters the determined sensitivity was 0.424±0.009 μC/mGy for our dosimetric system (Harshaw 3500 TLD Reader, respectively MCP-N TL dosimeters). For the medical staff monitored the doses received during a single intervention was below our detection limit while in the case of the patients doses ranging from 0.29±0.04 mGy to 1.04±0.04 mGy have been determined. Our results indicated that TL dosimetry is a suitable method for measurements in interventional cardiology. Its advantages are that this method is a cheap, fast, and easy to implement.


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