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PRIMA PAGINĂ ECOTERRA NUMĂRUL 9(31)/2012


Ecoterra, nr. 31, pp. 1-8, 2012
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE STRATEGIC NOISE MAP OF TRAFFIC FOR BAIA MARE CITY
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE STRATEGIC NOISE MAP OF TRAFFIC FOR BAIA MARE CITY

Marius Achim, Mirela Coman
North University, Faculty of Mineral Resources and Environment, Baia Mare, Romania
Ioana Rablou
Babeş-Bolyai Universitaty, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Noise pollution from traffic is a growing problem with the development of our society. To take effective measures to reduce the impact of this pollutant, it is necessary to know its distribution and magnitude in the area of ​​interest, which is the role of noise maps. In this paper, is presented  the method we used and the results obtained for the strategic noise map of traffic for Baia Mare city. In order to achieve the noise map we used a specialized software and the calculation model that was applied is the French national method of calculation, NMPB Routes-96. As a result of the research was obtained the traffic noise map as well as the number of people exposed to different levels of sound intensity.


Ecoterra, nr. 31, pp. 9-14, 2012
STUDY CONCERNING THE USAGE OF MICROORGANISMS IN HEAVY METALS POLLUTED SOILS DECONTAMINATION
STUDIU PRIVIND UTILIZAREA MICROORGANISMELOR LA DECONTAMINAREA SOLURILOR POLUATE CU METALE GRELE

Cosmina S. Băbuţ, Valer Micle, Adrian F. Potra
Universitatea Tehnică din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ingineria Materialelor şi a Mediului, Cluj-Napoca, România

In this paper the status of heavy metals polution of soil from Romania is presented. Based on the studies and researches concerning the involvement of different types of microorganisms (bacteria, fungus etc.) in sites decontamination, an analysis regarding these microorganisms importance in the remediation process of heavy metals polluted soils has been made. In addition are presented the major types of microorganisms which allow the obtaining of a higher extraction efficaciousness in soil biopurification process.


Ecoterra, nr. 31, pp. 15-23, 2012
ACID PRECIPITATIONS AND ANALYSIS OF THE PHENOMENON WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS
PRECIPITAţIILE ACIDE şI ANALIZA FENOMENULUI îN CONTEXTUL CONVENţIILOR INTERNAţIONALE DE MEDIU

Dionisie Buburuz
Institutul de Ecologie şi Geografie al AŞM şi Ministerului Mediului, Chişinău, Republica Moldova
Lilia Columbina
Universitatea T. G. Şevcenco, Tiraspol, Republica Moldova

The purviews of international acts: Geneva Convention (13.11.79) and Espoo Convention (25.02.91) emphasize the necessity of taking measures regarding the diminishing of polluting substances emanation and evaluation of transboundary impact of the projects directed to the economic development of the countries. In Republic Moldova the climatic resources are determined by extern baric centers. The regime of atmospheric circulation is predominant anti cyclonic with relatively weak activity of atmospheric processes, with a diversity expressed in seasonal circulation changes. The majority of cyclones pass over RM territory from West, South-West with the average speed of 20-30 km/hour, maximum 80-90 km/hour. The winds from West, North and North-West are prevailing with a lower frequency from South and South-West. The average annual speed is of 2,5-4,5 m/sec. The climatic factors lead to the displacement on RM territory of air masses polluted by substances emanated from industrial processes from adjacent countries. Along with charcoal consumption increasing since 1973 and increasing of quantities of acid substances eliminated in the atmosphere, the transboundary impact of polluting substances upon the air basin of RM increased also, which determined the apparition of acid precipitation. The monitoring of chemical composition of precipitations in the period 1993-2009 showed the presence of acid precipitations in the Republic of Moldova. The value of pH in precipitation water samples was varying within the limits 2.65 - 10.35. In the period 1990-1998 the quantity of acid samples out of the total precipitations increased continuously, in the period 1999-2002 a change was registered, the water samples from precipitations were in the most part neutral and after 2002 until 2009 an increasing of acid sample number is recorded. Among acid gases responsible for precipitation water acidulation the most important are the sulphur and nitrogen oxides. The sulphur and nitrogen oxides are eliminated in high quantities in the atmosphere along with the combustion gases and those from industrial processes. The emanations of sulphur oxides in air space of the Republic of Moldova constituted in 1990 (year of reference for international conventions) about 230 kt of sulphur oxides, then decreased to about 10 kt in 2008. The global emanation of sulphur oxides in the atmosphere is evaluated to approximately 113 mln tonnes/year, of which 98 mln tonnes reach the atmosphere as SO2, 3 mln t - as SO3, 9 mln t - sulphates aerosols and 3 mln - H2S. The studies showed that the precipitations originated from Stratus and Stratocumulus clouds, which absorb the acid pollutants from the lower layers of the atmosphere, thus from the local pollution sources, are less acid than the precipitation samples fallen from Cumulonimbus clouds, which are in contact with the superior part of the atmosphere and which incorporate the pollutants transported by frontal air masses. The content of analyzed ions and the value of pH in precipitations also depend on the direction and structure of the wind at the high altitude. When the wind is descendent the concentration of analyzed ions is higher and the samples are more acid, which prove the contribution of transboundary transfer of acid substances in acid precipitation forming. The above mentioned facts show than within the international environment Convention the Republic of Moldova must benefit the compensation of damage provoked to the environment, economy and population health through transboundary transfer of acid substances.


Ecoterra, nr. 31, pp. 24-33, 2012
NISTRU RIVER - TRENDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE
NISTRU RIVER - TRENDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE

Dionisie Buburuz
Institute of Ecology and Geography of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova
Victoria Nistreanu
Institute of Zoology of Academy of Sciences of Moldova

The construction of Novodnestrovsc barrage on middle course of Nistru provoked the modification of hydrologic, hydrochemical, hydrobiologic, ecologic and thermal regimes of middle and lower course of Nistru River. The changes had a strong impact upon Nistru water quality and chemistry, caused strong negative restructuring of hydrobiont communities, influenced the species diversity and the quantitative development of aquatic fauna, which registered a considerable decrease, lead to the essential diminishing of Nistru river economic potential. Species particular for the flowing water have disappeared and new species appeared that are particular for lentil water, which prove that Nistru is gradually changing from a river into a lake with still water. To stop and decrease the process of ecological degradation of Nistru river there are necessary measures to reconstruct Novodnestrovsc and Naslavcea barrage on Ukraine territory, to avoid the deviation from the original project documentation during the construction period and to accomplish the stipulations of international environment treaties regarding the minimizing of ecological impact upon the surface waters and of prejudice provoked to the Republic of Moldova economy. The absence of an unified interstate mechanism of complex use of Nistru River natural resources lead to the degradation of biological resources, essential diminishing of biodiversity and of economic potential of Nistru river.


Ecoterra, nr. 31, pp. 34-38, 2012
THE MONITORING OF THE RADON FROM THE INTERIORS IN CâMPULUNG MOLDOVENESC AREA
MONITORIZAREA RADONULUI DE INTERIOR îN ZONA CâMPULUNG MOLDOVENESC

Iuliana Candrea, Alexandra Cucoş, Constantin Cosma
Facultatea de Ştiinţa şi Ingineria Mediului, Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Research on radon in the uranium mines are widely spread both national and international. It was shown that from the total annual radioactive dose received by the population more that 40% is due to radon inhalation and ingestion of radon and its decay products. In this context, Romania aims at organizing a national program for monitoring the level of radon inside buildings (public and residential houses), especially in risk areas. This articol presents distribution of radon in indoor air (public and residential houses) from the area Cîmpulung Moldovenesc – Fundu Moldovei – Iacobeni – Crucea near uranium mine Crucea, Suceava. For indoor radon detection was used the method of solid trace detectors called CR-39. The measurements were performed with trace detectors CR-39 in 10 locations in the risk area between March and May 2011. The results indicate that radon concentration values ​​are above the action level of 200 Bq/m3 in four schools, value considered by the authorities as recommended limit for exposure to radon. Maximum values measured ​​were in the school named “Dimitrie Gusti”, located in village Fundu Moldovei, situated closest to the former uranium mine of all locations studied. In those four schools it is highly recommended to use methods to reduce radon concentrations. The study area remains for future research that will provide a clear image on environmental issues.


Ecoterra, no. 31, pp. 44-47, 2012
PESTICIDES IN THE ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH
PESTICIDES IN THE ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH

Andreea-Bianca Dragus, Dumitru Ristoiu
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, University Babeş-Bolyai Cluj-Napoca, Romania

The purpose of this paper is to review and confirm the importance of monitoring the input of pesticides into the environment and the impact upon human health. The chemical market has evolved very strongly in the last 50 years. Agriculture is one of the most well known branch that has benefited from this development. Environmental matrices, such as soil and water are contaminated with pesticides, thus disrupting the natural balance of the ecosystem. Also, the health of human communities is at risk. Epidemiological studies have pointed out that the use of pesticides can have an impact on the reproductive system. Adequate and consequent monitoring of pesticides is a prerogative for a modern and responsible society.


Ecoterra, no. 31, pp. 48-56, 2012
SOME CONSIDERATION CONCERNING THE ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT OF WOOD WASTES FROM ROMANIA
UNELE CONSIDERAţII SPECIFICE INGINERIEI şI MANAGEMENTULUI DEşEURILOR LEMNOASE DIN ROMâNIA

Gheorghe Fînăţan, Mirela Coman, Bogdan Cioruţa
Universitatea Tehnică Cluj-Napoca, Centrul Universitar Nord, Facultatea de Resurse Minerale şi Mediu, Baia Mare

Environmental protection, public health, physical capital and natural state, maintaining biological diversity and fragile ecosystems balance, waste management etc. are just some of the current issues facing humanity. Waste management and hence their degree of recycling have different valences from one country to another, in Romania, registering notable efforts for the purpose of developing viable strategies for sustainable development and integrated waste management, especially of the industrial and household waste. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the remarkable results of the activity of industrial pollution protection, recycling and use of wood waste as raw material in products with an efficient recovery, due to the increasing concerns for use of secondary energy resources.


Ecoterra, no. 31, pp. 57-62, 2012
THE ASSESSMENT OF AGHIREş MINING EXPLOITATION IMPACT UPON THE ENVIRONMENT
EVALUAREA IMPACTULUI EXPLOATăRII MINIERE AGHIREş ASUPRA COMPONENTELOR DE MEDIU

Vlad Măcicăşan, Liviu Muntean, Gheorghe Roşian, Loredana Nicorici

Mining activities involve a high degree of environmental degradation, with negative effects on all the specific components. In the Corneşti-Aghireş region, which frames the analyzed area, there are a number of environmental disruptions caused by mining. In the present study, attention was focused on the impact over the environmental physicochemical components, and in order to highlight the current situation, we used the method developed by Pastakia and Jensen in 1998, which is based on an impact assessment matrix. The results were used to develop appropriate solutions for impact mitigation and to propose measures for preventing and combating land degradation.


Ecoterra, no. 31, pp. 63-67, 2012
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOIL SURFACE TEMPERATURE IN NORTHEASTERN ROMANIA
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOIL SURFACE TEMPERATURE IN NORTHEASTERN ROMANIA

Adrian Piticar, Dumitru Ristoiu
Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Dumitru Mihăilă
Ştefan cel Mare University, Faculty of History and Geography, Suceava, România

In the present work we have characterized the soil surface temperature from 16 meteorological stations distributed over Northeastern Romania for a period up to 50 years. The aim of this study consist in thermal regime characterization of the surface soil temperature, emphasizing mean, maximum and minimum temperature variations during the years and make comparisons between surface soil temperature and air temperature. We found that in the Northeastern part of Romania the months with highest and lowest mean temperatures are July and January. Variations from year to year of thermic minima of surface soil temperature is greater than annual maxima, because of the specifity of the atmospheric circulation during the winter. All the parameters analyzed display a territorial distribution influenced by relief, latitude and especially altitude.


Ecoterra, no. 31, pp. 68-73, 2012
STUDY REGARDING THE BIOREMEDIATION OF OIL HYDROCARBONS POLLUTED SOILS
STUDIU PRIVIND BIOREMEDIEREA SOLURILOR CONTAMINATE CU HIDROCARBURI PETROLIERE

Adrian F. Potra, Valer Micle, Cosmina S. Băbuţ
Universitatea Tehnică din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ingineria Materialelor şi a Mediului, Cluj-Napoca, România

The bioremediation of the soils which were contamined with oil hydrocarbons constitutes an active preoccupation on the national and international level as well. In the fisrt part of this paper is presented the situation of soils from Romania regarding their pollution with oil hydrocarbons. In the second part are enumerated the most important bioremediation technologies and the most important factors which can influence the treatment of oil hydrocarbons polluted soils. This study has as a goal the establishment of the most proper bioremediation method of each type of soil.


Ecoterra, no. 31, pp. 74-79, 2012
RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE SOIL QUALITY FROM THE CHEMICAL WASTES STORAGE POşTA RîT - TURDA
CERCETăRI PRIVIND STAREA DE CALITATE A SOLULUI DIN ZONA DEPOZITULUI DE DEşEURI CHIMICE POşTA RîT - TURDA

Vasile C. Prodan, Valer Micle
Universitatea Tehnică, Facultatea de Ingineria Materialelor şi a Mediului, Cluj–Napoca, România
Georgiana Plopeanu
Institutul Naţional de Cercetare-Dezvoltare pentru Pedologie, Agrochimie şi Protecţia Mediului – ICPA Bucureşti
Maria Szanto (Prodan)
Universitatea Tehnică, Facultatea de Ingineria Materialelor şi a Mediului, Cluj–Napoca, România

The site of chemical wastes storage Poşta Rît from Turda city is a former wastes baluster. Here there is an historical pollution process due to uncontrolled depositing of various wastes resulted from former Chemical Plant from Turda. The main pollutant which persists here is the pesticide HCH. The article presents some researches of physico-chemical characteristics of the soil from this area (pesticides and heavy metals concentrations). The pollutant concentrations from the soil samples were determined in relation with normal values, threshold alert values and intervention threshold values for the less sensible usage of the lands, established through the 756/1997 Order for the approvement of the Reglementation regarding the environmental pollution evaluation, normal values overtakings been recorded.


Ecoterra, no. 31, pp. 80-85, 2012
“GLIMEE” TYPE LANDSLIDES AND THEIR CONDIţIONING ON LAND USE. STUDY CASE: LANDSLIDES FROM ŢIGLA CăTINII HILL (CăMăRAşU)
CONDIţIONăRI ALE UTILIZăRII TERENURILOR DATORATE ALUNECăRILOR MASIVE DE TIP GLIMEE. STUDIU DE CAZ: ALUNECăRILE DE PE DEALUL ŢIGLA CăTINII (CăMăRAşU)

Gheorghe Roşian, Cristian Maloş, Liviu Muntean, Sabin A. Bădărău, Alexandru Tahâş, Vlad Măcicăşan
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai, Facultatea de Ştiinţa şi Ingineria Mediului, Cluj-Napoca, România

Massive landslides of „glimee” type, trough their large extension, determine a specific morphology on the land. This morphology is characterized by specific morphometric and morphographic parameters which have an influence on the way land has been used by the human society. In most of the cases these areas have been forested, used as orchards or pastures. In the case of the massive landslide affecting the northern slope of Ţigla Cătinii Hill, the land is been used as pasture. As a consequence a loss of biodiversity has been induced, most of the species from the natural plant associations being now extinct in the area, with the exception of small areas at the top of “glimee” land forms.


Ecoterra, no. 31, pp. 39-43, 2012
PC BASED DATA ACQUISITION, MONITORING AND CONTROLLING TECHNIQUES IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESSES
PC BASED DATA ACQUISITION, MONITORING AND CONTROLLING TECHNIQUES IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESSES

Leontin Catarig, Ciprian Pop, Csaba Bartha
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A., Bistriţa, Romania

One of the most important functions of an automated system is to provide information about the process status. The acquisition, manipulating and monitoring of process data as an important component of these function, is not limited only to a passive state, but involves also, some intervention of personnel that supervises the process. In case we are speaking about a wide-spread area system, the efficient data monitoring can only be possible if hierarchical and distributed systems are used.


Ecoterra, no. 31, pp. 86-90, 2012

Marilena Rozenberg
Ministry of Environment and Forests - Intermediary Organism SOP Environment, North West Region, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Andreea Porumb
Technical University Cluj-Napoca, Romania

The paper presents the first major project in Romania, approved by the European Commission, for the North West Region, financed by the European Regional Development Fund, under Priority Axis 2 "Development of integrated waste management and rehabilitation of historically contaminated sites" of the Sectoral Operational Program Environment. The "Integrated solid waste management system in Bistriţa-Năsăud" project consist of building a regional warehouse, five transfer station, five collection platforms  as well as closure and rehabilitation of four inconsistent urban deposits and 200 inconsistent rural deposits.


Ecoterra, no. 31, pp. 91-96, 2012
THE ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS FROM LAKE BABADAG ECOSYSTEM
EVALUAREA FACTORILOR DE MEDIU DIN ECOSISTEMUL LACUL BABADAG

Tudor A. Rusu
Universitatea Tehnică din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ingineria Materialelor şi a Mediului, Cluj-Napoca, România

Babadag Lake is part of the lagunat complex Razim-Sinoe which, together with Danube Delta, is part of Danube Delta Biosphere Reservation in the UNESCO frame. This place was chosen for the study due to some of its characteristics: The water income flow is made by two channels, and the water evacuation is done by a single channel through the Razim Lake. So, the water flows can be continuously monitored and, in the same time, one can fix a permanent monitoring system of data of this lake.   


Ecoterra, no. 31, pp. 97-104, 2012
THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A CYBERNETIC CONCEPT IN THE MONITORING OF AN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM
IMPLEMENTAREA CONCEPTULUI CIBERNETIC îN MONITORIZAREA UNUI ECOSISTEM ACVATIC

Tudor A. Rusu
Universitatea Tehnică din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ingineria Materialelor şi a Mediului, Cluj-Napoca, România

Babadag Lake is part of the lagunat complex Razim-Sinoe which, together with Danube Delta, is part of Danube Delta Biosphere Reservation in the UNESCO frame. In this paper, some mathematical modeling processes were made concerning the water quality of Lake Babadag.


Ecoterra, no. 31, pp. 105-109, 2012
CERCETăRI ASUPRA STăRII DE CALITATE A SOLURILOR DIN ZONA ROMPLUMB BAIA MARE
CERCETăRI ASUPRA STăRII DE CALITATE A SOLURILOR DIN ZONA ROMPLUMB BAIA MARE

Ioana M. Sur, Valer Micle
Universitatea Tehnică, Cluj–Napoca, Romania
Georgiana Plopeanu
Institutul Naţional De Cercetare-Dezvoltare Pentru Pedologie, Agrochimie şi Protecţia Mediului – Icpa Bucureşti, România

In this paper, are presented physical and chemical characteristics of the soil and its metals content as well. Following the analysis which were made it has benn observed that the soil from the study are is polluted with yinc, chrome and arsenium. The concentrations of these elements in 0-20 cm depth range outrun the normal values, outruning even the alert threshold and the limits of the intervention threshold. These high concentrations of the heavy metals from the Romplumb Baia Mare area are related with the mining activity and of metalurgical unferous industry which has been practiced in the area. Thus, there is now a wide polluted area and the environment has been negatively affected as well, which may lead to a great risk for the human health.


Ecoterra, no. 31, pp. 110-116, 2012
INVESTIGAţII PRIVIND STAREA DE CALITATE A SOLULUI DIN ZONA COPşA MICă
INVESTIGAţII PRIVIND STAREA DE CALITATE A SOLULUI DIN ZONA COPşA MICă

Maria Szanto (Prodan), Valer Micle
Universitatea Tehnică din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ingineria Materialelor şi a Mediului, Cluj–Napoca, Romania
Eugenia Gamenţ
Institutul Naţional de Cercetare-Dezvoltare pentru Pedologie, Agrochimie şi Protecţia Mediului – ICPA Bucureşti, România
Vasile C. Prodan
Universitatea Tehnică din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Ingineria Materialelor şi a Mediului, Cluj–Napoca, Romania

In the present paper is presented Copşa Mică area, the soil from here being very polluted, as everyone is aware about. In order to determine the soil characteristics, there have been collected soil samples from 3 places and 3 depths (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm), which were then analyzed in the lab for following determinations: chemicals (soil reaction, humus, total nitrogen, mobile phosphorus, mobile potassium, total salts content), physical (granulometric fractions, carbohydrates) and metals concentration on every depth, as well. In has been concluded that the greatest concentrations of the metals from soil decreases along with the distance by the pollution source.


Ecoterra, no. 31, pp. 117-121, 2012
CASE STUDY: EX-SITE (OFF SITE) BIOREMEDIATION OF AN INDUSTRIAL SITE CONTAMINATED BY OIL IN ROMANIA
CASE STUDY: EX-SITE (OFF SITE) BIOREMEDIATION OF AN INDUSTRIAL SITE CONTAMINATED BY OIL IN ROMANIA

Alexandrina (Olah) Vasile
University Babeş-Bolyai, Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Laurenţiu Mocanu
FIFIM, USAMV Bucharest

Purpose: Meeting the environmental obligations set by the EPA (environmental protection competent authority) by the environmental assets for sale to a new company namely "decontamination, restoration and removing topsoil of land related to identified pollution petroleum hydrocarbons."
Presentation Site: Location: Romania; Area: 6 hectares; History: 1940 - 2008 - Construction and repair of heavy vehicles, in 2008 - has a new owner and does not industrial activity; Status: confirmed soil contamination by petroleum products: the two areas A and B, with an area of approximately 2500 sqm and 1500 sqm area A area B; Duration of execution: max. 18 months from signing the papers; Method: ex-site (off site) Bioremediation with removal of decontaminated soil from the warehouse for hazardous waste.
Objectives: bioremediation to legal limits [1] to change the destination followed by sensitive use of land in a residential area.
Project phases: 1. Analysis of previous investigation results; 2. Evaluation of treatment options contaminated soil; 3. Study tratabilitate; 4. Project Development and Environment to obtain agreement; 5. Construction platform bioremediation; 6. Excavation and bioremediation; 7. Monitoring; 8. Remove decontaminated soil deposit; 9. Verification and validation.
Options: ex site bioremediation: on site/off site; implementation: biobateries/windrows; excavation: continuous/sequential;
Solution retained: Ex-site bioremediation site (platform bioremediation) by wetting-aeration of contaminated soil excavated by washing with water collection as fallback (in case the results were unsatisfactory bioremediation) stabilization/solidification of waste by use of specific additives, mainly to neutralize metal concentration.
Considerations: Bringing quality to the legally established site for lands with sensitive destinations.


Ecoterra, no. 31, pp. 122-128, 2012
CASE STUDY CONCERNING THE HYDROLOGICAL RISK ANALYSIS IN DăMUC VILLAGE
STUDIU DE CAZ PRIVIND ANALIZA RISCULUI HIDROLOGIC îN COMUNA DăMUC

Ioana Vodă, Kinga O. Reti, Cristian Maloş, Dorin Manciula
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai, Facultatea de Ştiinţa şi Ingineria Mediului, Cluj-Napoca, România

Floods risk constitutes a problem for Dămuc village (Neamţ county) starting with 2010 due to massive deforestations from the upper part of hydrographical basin and to local area morphology as well (the presence of steep slopes. The GIS technic has been used on the analysis of the Dămuc village exposure to the hydrological risk. This technic also allows to simulate a outrageous flood and making hydrological risk maps as well. These maps are very useful in fighting actions against the floods and at the interventions in emergency situations as well.


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