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PRIMA PAGINĂ ECOTERRA NUMĂRUL 9(32)/2012


Ecoterra, no. 32, pp. 1-4, 2012
THE IRRIGATION OF HONEY–PLANTS CROPS WITH DEPOLLUTED WATERS WITH OZONE
THE IRRIGATION OF HONEY–PLANTS CROPS WITH DEPOLLUTED WATERS WITH OZONE

Constantin N. Drăgănescu
University of Craiova, Craiova
Cornelia Doşteţan
S. C. Apilife S. R. L. Sibiu
Anca Udrea
College „Alex Lahovary” Râmnicu-Vâlcea
Luciu Popescu
College „Ştefan Odobleja” Craiova

Because traces of pollution of the cower were also found in the bee honey, at the irrigation of honey-plants-crops (Helianthus annuus, Brassica oleifera etc.) it is required to use water without polluants (nitrites, heavy metals, pesticides and others). Using the chemical reaction of nitrite oxidation in the study it is exemplified the calculation manner of the ozone quantity needed, to get this pollutant of the legal limit, assuming that at the chemical analysis of the water irrigation, that was found with exceeded value according to the water level. Similary to the water is posible to the other pollutants. The ozone used at the depolution is obtained now from the environmental air through well-developped technology well planned and commonly used. Ozone production facilities use the effect „Corona”, being produced also in Romania.


Ecoterra, no. 32, pp. 5-12, 2012
CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOMASS UTILIZATION IN HUNGARY; POSSIBILITIES AND RESTRICTIONS REGARDING SUSTAINABILITY
CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOMASS UTILIZATION IN HUNGARY; POSSIBILITIES AND RESTRICTIONS REGARDING SUSTAINABILITY

Bernadett Gálosi-Kovács
University of Pécs, Faculty of Science, Institute of Geography, Department of General and Applied Environmental Geography, Hungary
Klára Rudlné Bank
University of Pécs, Faculty of Science, Institute of Geography, Regional Geography Department, Hungary

Hungary, lacking other natural resources to provide the sufficient amount of reserves to cover its population’s energy-needs, has become a leading biomass producing country. Hungarian agriculture is capable to provide only an infinitesimal proportion of the current energy needs, and, despite the fact that agriculture is creating jobs, plundering agricultural energetics is not a solution and is contrary to the interest of those living in the Carpathian Basin. Besides our relatively huge extant potentials (topsoil, waters, forests, etc.) the consideration of the aspects of sustainability is indispensable because of the limitations due to the size of the country. In the field of agro-energetics, the appropriately controlled production and utilization of biogas is recommended the most of all.


Ecoterra, no. 32, pp. 13-18, 2012
THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE INVESTMENT PROJECTS IN TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENTS FOR ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION
IMPLEMENTAREA PROIECTELOR DE INVESTIţII îN TEHNOLOGII şI ECHIPAMENTE PENTRU PROTECţIA MEDIULUI

Vasile I. Gliga
Universitatea Tehnică din Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, România
Augustin L. Munteanu
ARACO - Cluj Branch, România

A scientific research on ‘technologies and equipment for environment protection’ gets completed by the initiation of customised projects, which can be financed from European, governmental or local funds. Both in the design stage (on project phases) and in the execution, monitoring, operation and maintenance ones, need is to strictly comply with the technical and economical legislation in the field. Any deviations lead to malfunctions in the contract deployment, give rise to suspicions from the part of the financers, the payments get deferred, there may come up conflicts amongst the actors involved in the investment putting into practice and, in the end, the terms get extended and the investment fails to reach its goal at the terms and according to the scheduled budgets. In order to prevent these disturbances in the investments evolutions as far as possible, the ARACO association gets involved by providing technical, economical and legal assistance to the actors involved (beneficiaries, designers, performers). Please find below a synthesis of the legislation in the field, a kind of ‘memento’ for users, which is also likely to create a basis of communication amongst the participants, exchanges of experiences and proposals for the enhancement of the  investments efficiency.


Ecoterra, no. 32, pp. 19-26, 2012
EFFECT OF EARTH WORMS ON SOLID WASTE TO GET NUTRIENT RICH VERMICOMPOST FOR PLANTS
EFFECT OF EARTH WORMS ON SOLID WASTE TO GET NUTRIENT RICH VERMICOMPOST FOR PLANTS

Arun Karnwal, Ravi Kumar
Bhojia Institute of Life Sciences, Bhud (Baddi), District Solan, India

In present time, environmental protection becomes very essential to minimizing environmental stress by developing effective technologies for use in recycling various organic wastes. Landfills and incineration are the most common means of solid waste disposal. This can also be solved by combination of effective technologies like Biodung composting and Vermitech (incorporating earthworms for the production of vermicompost). In the present study an effort has been made to assess the efficacy of earth worms in utilizing the food waste and medical waste to analyze the waste decomposition process assessed with earthworm activity. The results indicated that the organic waste and medical waste were successfully processed through vermicomposting during the period of 45 days. Treatment CS-1 was shown very good nutrient contents after 45 days of vermicomposting (phosphate .0055mg/l, organic content 152.93 mg/g, organic carbon 18.64%, chloride 56.8 mg/100g, sulphate 13 mg/100g and calcium 0.10%) while treatment CS-2 was shown effective nutrient levels in organic carbon 12.14%, chloride 41.18 mg/100g in comparison to CS-3. Treatment CS-3 shown higher nutrient content for phosphate .0074mg/l, organic content 73.83 mg/g, sulphate 9 mg/100g and calcium 0.13% in compare to CS-2.


Ecoterra, no. 32, p. 27-34, 2012
CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING THE EXPLOITATION OF THE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
CONSIDERAţII PRIVIND EXPLOATAREA STAţIILOR DE TRATARE A APEI

Petrică D. Toma
S.C. Apa Nova Bucureşti S.A.

This paper presents some considerations regarding the operation of water treatment plants. So are the criteria for choosing a water treatment scheme, the method of calculating dose reagents for water treatment and some aspects that must be considered when operating water treatment plants in winter.


Ecoterra, no. 32, p. 35-40, 2012
THE REDUCTION OF AMMONIA CONCENTRATION IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS AFFERENT TO RURAL LOCALITIES. CASE STUDY: WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT CRăCIUNELU DE JOS, ALBA COUNTY
REDUCEREA CONCENTRAţIEI DE AMONIU îN STAţIILE DE EPURARE A APELOR UZATE AFERENTE AşEZăRILOR RURALE. STUDIU DE CAZ: STAţIA DE EPURARE CRăCIUNELU DE JOS, JUD. ALBA

Maria Someşan, Daniela Ignat, Marioara Şandru, Vasile Ciuban
S.C. ICPE Bistrita S.A., Bistriţa

The village Crăciunelu de Jos has 2200 inhabitants from which 80% have drink water and sewage. At wastewater treatment plant going out, the waters will be evacuated in Tarnava river, situated at 200 m distance for plant. The sewage treatment plant in Crăciunelu de Jos uses primary, secondary and tertiary treatment units for treating predominantly domestic sewage. At evacuation from wastewater treatment plant, the water must respect the norm NTPA 001/2005. Used water treatment plant is planned to process the following wastewater flowrate: 129.5 m3/zi. The raw sewage is characterized by high ammonia concentration, high P, low BOD. For denitrification reaction is necessary C:N:P – 100:5:1 ratio. For carbon contribution we used starch, alcohol, glucose, vinegar. The best option was industrial alcohol because it has high BOD. High ammonia meeting in this case is specific for all rural localities because of low consumption of water.


Ecoterra, no. 32, p. 41-45, 2012
ANTHROPIC IMPACT IN BOTANICAL RESERVATION „PăDUREA DIN ŞES” FROM ORHEIU BISTRIţEI
IMPACTUL ANTROPIC îN REZERVAţIA BOTANICă ,,PăDUREA DIN ŞES DE LA ORHEIU BISTRIţEI

Cristina Rusu, Claudiu Gavriloaie
Colegiul Tehnic INFOEL Bistriţa, România
Ancuta M. Toniuc
Liceul cu Program Sportiv Bistriţa, România

The snake’s head or the snake's head fritillary (Fritillaria meleagris), one of the most beautiful plants from Bistriţa-Năsăud county, vegetates on a wide range in the preserved area Pădurea de la Şes from Orheiu Bistriţei village. It is a protected species, yet, there are serious threats, mostly of anthropic origin within its range. So, there is a hard deforestation in the area, sometimes in the forest cattles may appear. In addition, the plant is oftenly reaped out by human visitors. In this area, there is an annual festival so-called „The snake’s head festival”, but the plant has to suffer most negative impact due to human in the festival’s period. After this festival, the forest gets a large ammount of all kind of wastes. Among the natural threats, we can mention the restraint of the muddy surfaces (which represent the ideal substrate for the plant) in some dry springs.


Ecoterra, no. 32, p. 46-48, 2012
QUESTION OF THE DAY: „QUO VADIT VITTA TERRAE”?
QUESTION OF THE DAY: „QUO VADIT VITTA TERRAE”?

Ion Castraveţ
Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chişinău, Republic of Moldova

Meditating on the future of life on Terra, in front of us, spontaneously appear very the same questions frequently: “What’s happening in our terrestrial biosphere? Why it does happen like this? What is to be done to protect life on Terra?, and finally, from all these questions to get to a more complex question, from a fundamental category: where does life on Terra? Also, studying the historical evolution of life on Terra, I think, unconditioned of course, we could divide it into 2 periods: the first period - from the beginning – till the appearance of Homo, and the second – from the appearence of Homo – till now, a period when under the influence of human factor in the biosphere have occured a lot of changes, especially in reforming the trophic pyramid? Meanwhile, in our terrestrial biosphere there appeared parasitism which also implied itself in „use” of „trophic pyramid” and affected the health of terrestrial creatures, causing a lot of devastating epidemies. Thus, searching for metods of protection of life on Terra, beside the correction of made mistakes, we got the intention of creating a Regional Center for Combating Parasitic Pathologies.


Ecoterra, no. 32, p. 49-58, 2012
IMPACT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON BIODIVERSITY
IMPACT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON BIODIVERSITY

Eugen Constantin
Do. Legal and Administrative Sciences - Spiru Haret University, Braşov, Romania

Closely related, the global economic crisis affects the current state of the environment. Although the countries of the world were bound by international environmental agreements, such as The Kyoto Protocol 1997, reducing emissions of greenhouse gases by 2010, they are unable to see or to continue investments start to achieve that objective. Paradoxically, due to the negative growth of the global economy more countries will meet Kyoto targets more easily. Great companies worldwide were forced to abandon solar energy projects, investments in wind farms, some governments are forced to seek protection against bankruptcy, those involved in the "green sector" are forced to adapt their strategies to the global financial crisis, the difficulties in accessing credits and that the global economy is in free fall. The effects of global financial crisis has environmental repercussions as well, not only on the economy. However, many of intentions to invest in the green economy in the long term remain valid, even if there are some delays in the start of projects. The overall development is closely linked to nature, with important implications on the environment. Global demand exceeded the power of humanity regeneration of earth resources and the natural environment is deteriorating rapidly.


Ecoterra, no. 32, p. 59-65, 2012
THE GEOGRAPHICAL-HUMAN POTENTIAL OF THE LOCALITIES FROM BâRGăU MOUNTAINS, BISTRIţA-NăSăUD COUNTY
POTENţIALUL GEOGRAFICO-UMAN AL AşEZăRILOR DIN MUNţII BâRGăULUI, JUDEţUL BISTRIţA-NăSăUD

Cornel Costea
Colegiul Naţional „George Bariţiu” Cluj-Napoca

The identification of the geographical and human potential of a settlement is frequently made by using quantitative methods: empirical and mathematical. Such an approach considers a complex of factors which define and impact upon the prosperity (the viability) or the decline of a settlement. For the present analysis, we have established the geographical and human potential of the settlements in Bârgău Mountains by taking into consideration the following parameters: the demographic size, the industrial potential, the position potential (the potential of communication), the potential of services (educational, sanitary, financial), the natural tourist potential and the anthropogenic tourist patrimony. For the quantification of these categories of potential, or, in other words, in order to find their common features, we have resorted to the reliability method. According to it, the variable of the highest favorability is given the greatest value, the values decreasing gradually according to the reliability classes established in the analysis process. The least favorable variable is given the smallest value. The adding up of each component of potential results in the geographical and human potential of the settlements within the mountainous area under examination. The result is expressed as a value with no unit of measurement. To highlight the area of the geographical and human potential of the settlements in Bârgău Mountains, we have drawn The Map of the Geographical and Human Potential of the Settlements in Bârgău Mountains.


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