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PRIMA PAGINĂ ECOTERRA NUMĂRUL 9(33)/2012


Ecoterra, no. 33, pp. 1-6, 2012
MINING ACTIVITIES IN THE SUPERIOR BASIN OF CRIşUL NEGRU RIVER
ACTIVITATI MINIERE IN BAZINUL SUPERIOR AL RAULUI CRISUL NEGRU

Gheorghe Banciu
S.C. ICPE Bistrita S.A., Bistriţa
Ovidiu Banciu
Uranium National Company (UNC), Băiţa Bihor, Romania
Liviu Suciu
S.C. ICPE Bistrita S.A., Bistriţa
Constantin Cosma
Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

The underground of this region provided along the years: gold, silver, iron, cupper, led, zinc, molybdenum, bismuth, tungsten, nickel, cobalt, pyrite, wollastonite, limestone, uranium, marble, building stone, and so on. In the literature, the subsoil of the region is known as “The Baita-Bihor metalo-genetic District”. It was for many centuries considered the greatness of mining in the country and in Central Europe. The Baita Bihor uranium deposit was located along the Cris Baita Valley, at the springs of the Valea Plaiului brook and was fully extracted by the Romano-Soviet Society „Sovrom-Kvartit” between 1952 and 1965. The ore’s high quality, the geological reservoir, the shape and shallow depth where it could be found have made this uranium mining to become, between 1957 and 1958, the biggest in the world. The Avram Iancu deposit, located in the interfluve between Crisul Negru, Ariesul Mic and Leucii Valley was exploited almost completely through underground mining during 1962-1998. Besides the useful mineral substances which were transported to processing plants, from the extracting process resulted also millions of tones of sterile rocks or slightly radioactive materials, those were deposited as waste, sometimes hastily on the water banks of Crisul Baita branches. A small fraction of these were driven by rainfall into the bed of these streams from where locals have gathered and used them as building material for household. After 1995 the mining production dropped considerably. Some areas have been restored naturally through afforestation and grassing. The intense work within this perimeter has modified the landscape aspect of the area and also partially the quality of some environmental factors on a distance up to 3 to 5 km from the mine. Their supervision was done by the specialised laboratories of the mining unit. Rehabilitation, however, was neglected until the Environmental Law foundation, this rising particular issues among specialists in this field. In 1998 were initiated the works to preserve and close some of the mining sectors and the environmental reconstruction was started in 1999 in Poiana-Izvorul Bihorului, Avram Iancu Mine and Baita pit. It is imperative to continue and complete them in all affected areas.


Ecoterra, no. 33, pp. 7-12, 2012
APPLIED TECHNIQUES TO DIMINISH RADON CONCENTRATION IN THREE DWELLINGS OF BAITA-STEI, ROMANIA
METODE APLICATE PENTRU DIMINUAREA CONCENTRAţIEI DE RADON îN TREI LOCUINţE DIN BăIţA-ŞTEI, ROMâNIA

Bety-Denissa Burghele, Mircea Moldovan, Botond Papp, Dan Constantin Niţă, Oana Rusu (Dumitru), Alexandra Cucoş, Constantin Cosma
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai, Facultatea de Ştiinţa şi Ingineria Mediului, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Carlos Sainz
Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Cantabria, Spain
Matej Neznal, Martin Neznal
Radon v.o.s., Novákových 6, Praha , Czech Republic

It is well known that Baita-Stei area is of great interest when it comes to radon, whether it is about its presence indoor, outdoor, soil or water. However, to acknowledge its presence is not enough, what one chooses to do with that knowledge is a different matter. In the present paper are presented the actions taken after acknowledging the radon situation in 3 houses of Baita village, Bihor County, Romania. Several remediation methods like draining pipes, extractor, wind fan, anti-radon membrane and insulation were applied in order to bring the radon activity concentration indoor bellow 300 Bq m-3. Moreover, in all cases the efficiency was higher than 80 %. In conclusion it is suffice to say that the first two cases were accordingly remediated and that the third is yet in progress of remediation.


Ecoterra, no. 33, pp. 13-20, 2012
MORPHOMETRIC ASPECTS OF THE CâRCINOV BASIN (THE CâNDEşTI PIEDMONT)
ASPECTE MORFOLOGICE ALE BAZINULUI CâRCINOV (PIEDMONTUL CâNDEşTI)

Maria Chivulescu
University of Piteşti, Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection, Piteşti, Romania

The basin of the Cârcinov Valley is situated in the Cândeşti Piedmont, being one of the tributaries of the Argeş River which ensures the drainage for a surface of approximately 202.7 km. The altidude becomes lower and lower from the north of the region (742m) to the south (225m) where it flows into the Argeş River. The most important part of the Cârcinov basin is represented by the hypsometric values between 400-500 m, namely 28.60% from the analysed surface. The analysis of the relief fragmentation offers us an important geomorphologic clue regarding the dynamics and distribution of the shaping processes from different time stages, data that will be taking into consideration within the process of durable development of the researched area. The degree of the relief fragmentation, with values included between 0-200m/km2 is the result of some complex causes and conditions as for instance: the setting of the basic level in general and of the local one, the slope, the neotectonic movements, etc. The inclination of the sides defines different categories of sides: with small slopes, between 0 and two degrees which characterize little inclined grounds in the neighborhood of water meadows and small rivers, with middle slopes between 16-17 degrees which are found on the most important part of the surface of the Cârcinov Basin and with big slopes under 27 degrees which are met on the fore sides of the terraces and fields. The exposure of the sides determines a certain caloric behaviour  of the soil with implications on the regime of humidity, geomorphologic processes and, last but not least, on the agricultural utilization and exploitation. The way the network of rivers is organized represents one of the factors that condition the character of the relations between different current morphogenetic processes which are, most of them, subordinated to the drainage down the sides or in hydrographic channels of different size orders.


Ecoterra, no. 33, pp. 21-35, 2012
QUALITY OF LIFE AND FACTORS THAT INFLUENCING IT
CALITATEA VIETII SI FACTORI CARE O INFLUENTEAZA

Andra L. Constantin
University of Bucharest, Faculty of Law, Bucharest, Romania

Environmental protection should be a priority, universal organized and controlled in response to environmental degradation caused by universal factors through natural phenomena and anthropogenic processes. To reduce environmental pressures it is necessary to develop a strategy for economic development that is in line with the environment. If economic development is carried out in line with nature, it creates many benefits: jobs, economic stability, social and economic progress. The principle of prevention is interrelated with the precautionary principle in decision making, being the reason why in some national legislations prevention and precaution are considered as two sides of a single principle. Intensification of human activity, followed by growth, increases the pressure on the environment and particularly on the natural environment. This pressure is manifested either by irrational use of resources and space, either by producing waste that nature cannot absorb and which have negative effects on the environment. An economic development which is in line with the needs and constraints of nature must be achieved, which requires liaising development of economic and environmental policy at all levels and in all branches of state. Therefore, this paper shows environmental protection measures to be considered at the national level.


Ecoterra, no. 33, pp. 36-53, 2012
REMARKS REGARDING THE CLIMATE CHANGES IN THE SUBARCTIC SCANDINAVIA
CONSIDERATII CU PRIVIRE LA SCHIMBARILE CLIMATICE DIN SCANDINAVIA SUBARCTICA

Dan Constantinescu
University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania
Christer Jonasson, Annika Kristofersson
Abisko Scientific Research Station, Abisko, Norrbotten, Sweden.
Roxana Raceu
University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania

Abisko Natural Reservation (Abisko Naturvetenskapliga Station - ANS) is located in the Northern Sweden, about 200 km north from the Polar Circle, including on its territory the “Abisko Scientific Researcher Station”, an experienced station for the studies regarding the evolution of the climate changes. The station is located at, 68o28 N, 18o28 E, 385m above the sea level, on the shore of Lake Torneträsk. The authors of the article, present some remarks and results of yearly observations and researches regarding climate data changes and impact on the environment in the mentioned area.  Graphs and pictures obtained during the activity at the station in July and August 2009 and 2010 are included in the article. The paper presents results regarding evolution of the temperature, humidity and wind during the last hundred years as well as some effects of the climate changes on the environment. Expected results from the analyzed data have in view: evaluation of the temperature changes, evaluation of the radiation changes, air streams, model for the air convection in the stratosphere, influence of the radiation on the temperature changes.


Ecoterra, no. 33, pp. 54-62, 2012
MODULAR TRANSVERSAL FLUX TUBULAR MACHINE USED AS TUBULAR GENERATOR
MODULAR TRANSVERSAL FLUX TUBULAR MACHINE USED AS TUBULAR GENERATOR

Vasile I. Gliga, Dan C. Popa, Vasile Iancu
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Augustin L. Munteanu
ARACO - Cluj Branch, Romania

This paper proposes an interesting new type of tubular machine that can work like a tubular motor or a tubular generator. The machine’s topologies for both operating regimes are presented here. In the paper, a tubular machine working as a generator, built from laminated sheet in stator and from sintered magnetic NdFeB powder material in core mover is presented. Some considerations about numerical analysis by means of FEM and conclusions concerning the technical potential of the proposed machine working as generator are also presented.


Ecoterra, no. 33, pp. 63-67, 2012
THE INFLUENCE OF TRIBUTARIES AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO POLLUTION IN NADăş BASIN
INFLUENTA APELOR TRIBUTARE SI CONTRIBUTIA LOR LA POLUAREA BAZINULUI RAULUI NADAS

Melinda Vigh, Zoltan Horvath, Greta Mândrean
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, University Babeş-Bolyai Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Domnica Pop
General School Alexandru Vaida Voevod, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Luana Turcu, Raluca Mihai, Andrada Muresan
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, University Babeş-Bolyai Cluj-Napoca, Romania

In modern times Nadăş Basin was exposed to a series of industrial pollution and that from the production agribusiness. Although industrial pollution has been substantially reduced can see a major change. Thus we can show that the lack sometimes total sewage from neighboring towns anthropomorphic pollution is what has replaced the industrial. Pollution of the agribusiness production was increased after the individual production, because modern processes had not taken adequate control environment. We have identified in the Nadas Basin several sources of pollution, which are tributaries to its territory.


Ecoterra, no. 33, pp. 68-77, 2012
GLOBAL WARMING AND ITS LIMITATION EFFECTS ON TRADITIONAL CULTURE OF POTATO IN SOMEş PLATEAU
INCALZIREA GLOBALA SI EFECTELE SALE LIMITATIVE ASUPRA CULTURII TRADITIONALE A CARTOFULUI IN PLATOUL SOMESAN

Bianca C. Malschi Florian
Regional Environmental Agency Protection Cluj-Napoca, Romania

In the context of sustainable agriculture, potato is more valuable talking about the agronomic, economic and ecological indicators: the environment, consumer health protection, landscape quality. The paper presents the research on the potato crop technology in irrigation system adapted to the global warming and aridisation on traditional farms in central Transylvania, Someş Plateau, Letca area. The results of this study show the dangerous periods of severe drought in recent years, which may endanger potato and justifying irrigation technology development on zone small and medium farms. Analyzing the results obtained in dry years 2011-2012, for the two studied Romanian varieties (Redsec and Milenium), we found provided production increases by applying irrigation, higher production was achieved in 2011, compared with yields of 2012 disaster situations frequently recorded in the country.


Ecoterra, no. 33, pp. 78-83, 2012
PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY MEASUREMENTS IN SOME BUILDING MATERIALS FROM URANIUM MINE AREA BăIţA, ROMANIA BY GAMMA SPECTROMETRY
PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY MEASUREMENTS IN SOME BUILDING MATERIALS FROM URANIUM MINE AREA BăIţA, ROMANIA BY GAMMA SPECTROMETRY

Constantin Cosma, O. A. Dumitru, Dan Constantin Niţă, Robert Begy, Alexandra Cucoş, Andra Iurian, Mircea Moldovan, Botond Papp, Tiberius Dicu, Betty Burghele
Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Liviu Suciu
S.C. ICPE Bistriţa S.A., Bistriţa, Romania
Carlos Sainz
Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Cantabria, Spain

The activity concentrations of radionuclides in buildings located in the uranium mines areas are of great national and international interest. The radionuclides of the 238U-series, 232Th-series and 40K isotope constitute the primordial sources of natural radioactivity which are mainly responsible for the natural radioactivity in building materials also. In this work, the activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K have been determined by gamma-ray spectrometry in building material samples collected from some areas of Baita-Stei, Romania, using high-purity germanium detectors (HPGe). The measured activity in soil samples ranges from 21 to 67 Bq/kg, 17 to 63 Bq/kg and 351- 1277 Bq/kg for 238U, 232Th and 40K respectively. The measured activity concentration of these three radionuclides was determined in bricks and river stones. The gamma index in building materials was calculated and was found to be lower than the recommended safe limit.


Ecoterra, no. 33, pp. 84-89, 2012
NOISE AND THE INFLUENCE OF MEDIUM LOCALITIES ARCHITECTURAL
NOISE AND THE INFLUENCE OF MEDIUM LOCALITIES ARCHITECTURAL

Zoltan Horvath, Greta Mândrean, Raluca Mihai, Şerban Tudor
Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, University Babeş-Bolyai Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Given the modern era one of the most harmful pollutants is physical urban noise. Noise sources are varied. For recording and measuring their specific methods are needed specialized equipment. Urban noise sources besides discomfort may cause changes in the body. In the fight to reduce urban noise a number of steps are required. In this paper are highlighted differences and similarities we found in two locations: Sighet and Gheorgheni.


Ecoterra, no. 33, pp. 90-94, 2012
DIAGNOSIS AND APPLYED REMEDIATION TECHNIQUES ON RADON IN BăIţA-ŞTEI AREA, ROMâNIA
DIAGNOSTICAREA şI IMPLEMENTAREA UNOR TEHNICI DE REMEDIERE A RADONULUI îN ZONA BăIţA-ŞTEI, ROMâNIA

Mircea Moldovan, Bety-Denissa Burghele, Botond Papp, Dan Constantin Niţă, Oana Rusu (Dumitru), Alexandra Cucoş, Constantin Cosma
Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai, Facultatea de Ştiinţa şi Ingineria Mediului, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Carlos Sainz
Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Cantabria, Spain
Matej Neznal, Martin Neznal
Radon v.o.s., Novákových 6, Praha , Czech Republic

This study presents the measurements of radon concentration in three houses located in Băiţa-Ştei, Bihor County, Romania. The paper reports detailed results of the experimental indoor radon measurements in dwellings of Băiţa radon-prone area, among buildings with different characteristics and also within houses involving rooms on the same floor and cellars with varied radon level. The measurements on each house have been carried out in several rooms simultaneously, and also in different seasons with the aim of obtaining a more detailed picture of the exposure to radon in the studied area.


Ecoterra, no. 33, pp. 95-97, 2012
THE ECOSYSTEM OF IZVORUL TăUşOARELOR CAVE, BISTRIţA-NăSăUD COUNTY, ROMANIA
ECOSISTEMUL PEşTERII IZVORUL TăUşOARELOR, JUD. BISTRIţA-NăSăUD, ROMâNIA

Cristina Rusu, Claudiu Gavriloaie
Colegiul Tehnic INFOEL Bistriţa, România

In Bistriţa-Năsăud county there are some remarcable caves. One of them, Izvorul Tăuşoarelor, is the third one from the lenght point of view and the deepest one from Romania. It is situated in Rodnei mountains, at 950 m altitude, near Rebrişoara village. It has 19 km lenght and a depth along 413.5 m. It was discovered in 1955. It contains cave bear bones, carstic formations, four underground rivers and a 15 m hight cascade. It has only a scientific importance being closed for the public.


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