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Ecoterra, 2020, 17(1):1-6
The influence of the work system on the maintenance of moisture in the soil - a review
Influenta sistemelor de lucru asupra mentinerii umiditatii solului

Ion Mărunțelu
Transilvania University of Brașov, Brașov, Romania

Soil works are technological processes of general character in agriculture that are made in        order to create the right environment for the development of plants by soil loosening, enrichment in water, air, heat and nutrients, regenerating their production capacity. The amount of water existing in the soil, in the layer in which the root system of plants is developed, can ensure higher or lower harvests depending on several factors and first of all by the applied crop technology. Ground water ensures that all biological, physical and chemical processes are carried out. The accumulation, conservation and storage of water in the soil is the most important task of the users of agricultural land. The correct management of the water resources of the soil is a problem that needs to be solved with the following consideration: of the concrete climatic situation of one or another agricultural territory; of the hydro- physical properties of the soils used in agriculture; the water requirements of sown agricultural crops; of the real possibility of partially regulating the water regime in the soil through agro-technical measures and irrigation etc. Soil moisture is also related to its physical, physical-mechanical, chemical and biological properties. The soil supplies the plants with nutrients, but for the plants to be able to use the nutrition from the soil, it must necessarily be dissolved in water. An eastern proverb says that “where there is water, there is life”. The loss of moisture from the soil occurs due to the increase of evaporation under the influence of the passage of agricultural equipment during soil work. This loss  of soil moisture is unfavorable for plants and therefore for agricultural production.

Ecoterra, 2020, 17(1):7-12
Allometric growth patterns in larvae and juveniles of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L., 1758)
Tiparele cresterii alometrice a larvelor si juvenililor a tilapiei de Nil, Oreochromis niloticus (L., 1758)

Mazaher Zamani-Faradonbe, Yazdan Keivany, Farhad Kermani
Department of Natural Resources (Fisheries Division), Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111, Iran

This study was carried out to examine morphological changes and allometric growth patterns in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (L., 1758)), as a valuable aquaculture species, during early developmental stages (from hatching up to 40 days after hatching) under rearing conditions. For extracting morphological data, a total of 160 larval specimens were collected in different days, then  the left side of the specimens was photographed, and eight morphometric characters including body height, caudal peduncle height, eye diameter, head length, postorbital length, standard length, snout  length and total length were measured. The larvae are born with developed feeding system and vision (jaws and eyes) that able them to see and take the food items immediately after hatching. These morphological changes in head (snout and eye) and caudal regions may be related to changes in feeding and swimming (to avoid predators) habits of this species.

Ecoterra, 2020, 17(1):13-23
Physics- and technology-based approaches for human sustainability
Abordari fizico-tehnologice ale sustenabilitatii umane

Marwan S. Mousa
Mu’tah University, Department of Physics, Al-Karak, Jordan
Ildiko Tulbure
University ”1 Decembrie 1918”, Alba Iulia, Romania

Industrial activities have the direct goal to support increasing humanity quality of life. Made experiences emphasized that beside positive direct effects of industrial activities these often have also negative, undesired and sometimes unthinkable effects on environment and society. Nowadays humanity is confronting with a series of global problems, in this context the concept of sustainable development being defined in 1987 in the Brundtland-Report. With regard to sustainability, chances and risks of technological applications have to be carefully analyzed and evaluated. In the last time the pretty new discipline called Technology Assessment grew up in order to evaluate technological, environmental and social impacts of industrial activities, where physical and technological targets are to be foremost considered. Debates about applying sustainability have recently brought on scientific field the issue concerning physics of sustainability especially connected to making new technologies available which address current challenges facing humanity. It is about putting focus on using physics to meet the growing demand on natural resources, especially connected to the energy supply in order to cover the steadily growing energy demand. Fundamental physics research is needed in areas such as renewable energy resources, having in the future impacts on sustainability agenda and humanity quality of life.

Ecoterra, 2020, 17(1):24-30
The evolution of the road network on the current territory of the Republic of Moldova in the period 1918-1940
Evolutia retelei rutiere pe teritoriul actual al Republicii Moldova in perioada 1918-1940

Vitalie Mamot
Tiraspol State University, Chișinău, Republic of Moldova

In the history of the Republic of Moldova, the roads were one of the main premises which determined, to a large extent, the socio-economic development of the territory and of the population, who lived here. At the beginning, the roads represented natural itineraries of plains or valleys, in the riverbeds which missed any kind of arrangement. These itineraries were formed and shaped over a long historical period. Changes in the itinerary directions and contents occurred only in case of the geographical landscape modifications or in case of some changes of attraction poles in the network of human settlements under the influence of different natural, economic, social and military factors. The purpose of the article is to restore and analyse the evolution of the road network on the current territory of the Republic of Moldova in the interwar period (1918-1940), when the current territory of the Republic of Moldova was found within Greater Romania.

Ecoterra, 2020, 17(1):31-38
Conservative agriculture in the context of sustainable development - a review
Agricultura conservatoare in contextul dezvoltarii durabile - recenzie

Ion Mărunțelu
Transilvania University of Brasov, Romania

Sustainable development is that type of development that meets the needs of the present, without compromising the needs of future generations. The objectives of sustainable agriculture are to optimize production and conserve basic natural resources. As a result, there must be a major interest for innovative technologies, for sustainable land use systems that prevent or minimize soil degradation. Modern, intensive agriculture exerts significant demands on the soil which can have negative consequences manifested through degradation processes and even destruction of production capacity. Conservative agriculture consists in the application of modern agricultural technologies while protecting and improving soil quality. When choosing a particular system of soil works, the conditions of soil, plants and climate that can influence or can be influenced by the respective system must be taken into account. Plant cultivation technologies can induce in the soil long-lasting effects that affect the physic-mechanical properties of the soil, modifying them. The current concerns for developing sustainable agricultural systems are justified by the worsening extension of soil degradation, even by desertification. That is why it is necessary to introduce technologies that will ensure the possibility of sustainable development. This is a review paper that represents a comparative study between conservative and conventional agriculture and presents research on this topic.

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